Carbon Dioxide: How It Travels Around The Globe by NASA

In the spring of 2014, for the first time in modern history, atmospheric carbon dioxide – the key driver of global warming – exceeded 400 parts per million across most of the northern hemisphere. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide concentrations were about 270 parts per million. Concentrations of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere continue to increase, driven primarily by the burning of fossil fuels.”  Source:  NASA

Source: NASA Goddard, uploaded on youtube on 17 November, 2014.

Earthniversity would like to share this article published at one of NASA’s webpage

http://www.nasa.gov/press/goddard/2014/november/nasa-computer-model-provides-a-new-portrait-of-carbon-dioxide/#.VGplofnF8R4)

The whole story reads:

An ultra-high-resolution NASA computer model has given scientists a stunning new look at how carbon dioxide in the atmosphere travels around the globe.  Plumes of carbon dioxide in the simulation swirl and shift as winds disperse the greenhouse gas away from its sources.

The simulation also illustrates differences in carbon dioxide levels in the northern and southern hemispheres and distinct swings in global carbon dioxide concentrations as the growth cycle of plants and trees changes with the seasons.

Scientists have made ground-based measurements of carbon dioxide for decades and in July NASA launched the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) satellite to make global, space-based carbon observations. But the simulation – the product of a new computer model that is among the highest-resolution ever created – is the first to show in such fine detail how carbon dioxide actually moves through the atmosphere.”

“While the presence of carbon dioxide has dramatic global consequences, it’s fascinating to see how local emission sources and weather systems produce gradients of its concentration on a very regional scale,” said Bill Putman, lead scientist on the project from NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Simulations like this, combined with data from observations, will help improve our understanding of both human emissions of carbon dioxide and natural fluxes across the globe.”

The carbon dioxide visualization was produced by a computer model called GEOS-5, created by scientists at NASA Goddard’s Global Modeling and Assimilation Office. In particular, the visualization is part of a simulation called a “Nature Run.” The Nature Run ingests real data on atmospheric conditions and the emission of greenhouse gases and both natural and man-made particulates. The model is then is left to run on its own and simulate the natural behavior of the Earth’s atmosphere. This Nature Run simulates May 2005 to June 2007.  While Goddard scientists have been tweaking a “beta” version of the Nature Run internally for several years, they are now releasing this updated, improved version to the scientific community for the first time. Scientists are presenting a first look at the Nature Run and the carbon dioxide visualization at the SC14 supercomputing conference this week in New Orleans.”

“We’re very excited to share this revolutionary dataset with the modeling and data assimilation community,” Putman said, “and we hope the comprehensiveness of this product and its ground-breaking resolution will provide a platform for research and discovery throughout the Earth science community.”

In the spring of 2014, for the first time in modern history, atmospheric carbon dioxide – the key driver of global warming – exceeded 400 parts per million across most of the northern hemisphere. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, carbon dioxide concentrations were about 270 parts per million. Concentrations of the greenhouse gas in the atmosphere continue to increase, driven primarily by the burning of fossil fuels.

Despite carbon dioxide’s significance, much remains unknown about the pathways it takes from emission source to the atmosphere or carbon reservoirs such as oceans and forests. Combined with satellite observations such as those from NASA’s recently launched OCO-2, computer models will help scientists better understand the processes that drive carbon dioxide concentrations.

The Nature Run also simulates winds, clouds, water vapor and airborne particles such as dust, black carbon, sea salt and emissions from industry and volcanoes.

The resolution of the model is approximately 64 times greater than that of typical global climate models. Most other models used for long-term, high-resolution climate simulations resolve climate variables such as temperatures, pressures, and winds on a horizontal grid consisting of boxes about 50 kilometers (31 miles) wide.  The Nature Run resolves these features on a horizontal grid consisting of boxes only 7 kilometers (4.3 miles) wide.

The Nature Run simulation was run on the NASA Center for Climate Simulation’s Discover supercomputer cluster at Goddard Space Flight Center. The simulation produced nearly four petabytes (million billion bytes) of data and required 75 days of dedicated computation to complete.

In addition to providing a striking visual description of the movements of an invisible gas like carbon dioxide, as it is blown by the winds, this kind of high-resolution simulation will help scientists better project future climate. Engineers can also use this model to test new satellite instrument concepts to gauge their usefulness. The model allows engineers to build and operate a “virtual” instrument inside a computer.

Using GEOS-5 in tests known as Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSE) allows scientists to see how new satellite instruments might aid weather and climate forecasts.

“While researchers working on OSSEs have had to rely on regional models to provide such high-resolution Nature Run simulations in the past, this global simulation now provides a new source of experimentation in a comprehensive global context,” Putman said. “This will provide critical value for the design of Earth-orbiting satellite instruments.”

 

For detailed views of various parts of the world, visit:

www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/a-closer-look-at-carbon-dioxide

 

For more information about NASA’s Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2, visit:

www.nasa.gov/oco or

http://oco.jpl.nasa.gov/

Streaming-Live Video of The Earth Online Through HDEV or High Definition Earth Viewing

Earthniversity would like to share with you the latest (c. May 2014) experiment conducted by NASA which is streaming live video of Earth for viewing online. Thank you NASA and youtube.

Published on Jul 9, 2014

To date there have been millions of viewers looking at the High Definition Earth Viewing, or HDEV camera views. Four cameras are sitting on the exterior of the space station which stream live video of Earth for viewing online. The cameras are enclosed in a temperature specific housing and are exposed to the harsh radiation of space. Analysis of the effect of space on the video quality may help engineers decide which cameras are the best types to use on future missions. The Associate Program Scientist for Crew Earth Observations, Will Stefanov, tells us more. (uploaded by ReelNASA on youtube)

Comment:

If you go to this website – http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/HDEV – you will find the live video of Earth from the ISS. You will know that you are in this website if you can read this on the top page – THE GATEWAY TO ASTRONAUT PHOTOGRAPHY OF EARTH – HDEV…Just get the right timing because at times, the stream is experiencing technical issues, but it will resume.

Vocabulary:

*Streaming – real time Internet sound or video: the playing of sound or video over the Internet or a computer network in real time. (Bing Dictionary).

OCO-2 Satellite Launched July 2, 2014: To Monitor the Breathing of the Earth, NASA Reports

For billions of years, Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that proved to be full of life. As a living planet, the earth needs a balanced ecosystem to maintain its equilibrium the way human beings do.

In this article, “NASA Launches New Carbon-Sensing Mission to Monitor Earth’s Breathing”, “A United Launch Alliance Delta II rocket launches with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2)satellite onboard from Space Launch Complex 2 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, Calif. on Wednesday, July 2, 2014. OCO-2 will measure the global distribution of carbon dioxide, the leading human-produced greenhouse gas driving changes in Earth’s climate”. (Source: http://www.nasa.gov)

Please check this out on this link:

http://www.nasa.gov/press/2014/july/nasa-launches-new-carbon-sensing-mission-to-monitor-earth-s-breathing#.U7gsn5z_R6o.facebook

Reference: http://www.nasa.gov.