The world famous island of Boracay was closed from the public upon the order of Philippine President Rodrigo Roa Duterte.  From April 26 up to the time this article was written, a multi-sectoral group have joined efforts to clean up the island.  This video provided by RTVM or the Radio TV Malacanang, a government media agency, will give you a bird’s eye view of what has happened on Boracay since the time it was closed to the public.  Here’s Ms. Margaux “Mocha” Uson, Assistant Secretary, Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO) for the report.

Source:  RTVM, Radio TV Malacanang Facebook Page.

Map of Boracay.   Source:   or

Source:  or allboracay,ru


Geography of Boracay Island

(Source: wikipedia)

Boracay Island is located off the northwest corner of Panay Island, and belongs to the Western Visayas island-group, or Region VI, of the Philippines. The island is approximately seven kilometers long, dog-bone shaped with the narrowest spot being less than one kilometer wide, and has a total land area of 10.32 square kilometers.

South-facing Cagban Beach is located across a small strait from the jetty port at Caticlan on Panay island, and the Cagban jetty port serves as Boracay’s main entry and exit point during most of the year. When wind and sea conditions dictate, east-facing Tambisaan Beach serves as an alternative entry and exit point.[34] Boracay’s two primary tourism beaches, White Beach and Bulabog Beach, are located on opposite sides of the island’s narrow central area. White Beach faces westward and Bulabog Beach faces eastward. The island also has several other beaches.

White Beach, the main tourist attraction is about four kilometers long and is lined with resorts, hotels, lodging houses, restaurants, and other tourism-related businesses. In the central portion, for about two kilometers, there is a footpath known as the Beachfront Path separating the beach itself from the establishments located along it. North and south of the Beachfront Path, beachfront establishments do literally front along the beach itself. Several roads and paths connect the Beachfront Path with Boracay’s Main Road, a vehicular road which runs the length of the island. At the extreme northern end of White Beach, a footpath runs around the headland there and connects White Beach with Diniwid Beach.

Bulabog Beach, across the island from White Beach, is the second most popular tourist beach on the island and Boracay’s main windsurfing and kiteboarding area.

Boracay is divided for land use and conservation purposes into 400 hectares of preserved forestland and 628.96 hectares of agricultural land.[35][36][37][38][39][40]  (Source: Wikipedia)



(Source: Wikipedia)

Partly because of its wind and weather patterns, tourism in Boracay is at its peak during the amihan season (which starts in September or October and ends sometime in May or June). During amihan, the prevailing wind blows from the east. Boracay’s main tourism area, White Beach, is on the western side of the island and is sheltered from the wind. During the Amihan season, the water off White Beach is often glassy-smooth. On the eastern side of the island, hills on the northern and southern ends of the island channel the Amihan season wind from the east onshore, onto Bulabog Beach in the central part of the island’s eastern side. This makes the reef-protected waters off that beach relatively safe[52] and ideal for scuba divingwindsurfing, and kiteboarding / kitesurfing.

In June 2011, it was reported that Megaworld Corporation, a real estate development group led by Andrew Tan had earmarked PHP20 billion to develop tourism estates “featuring an integrated, master-planned layout and world-class resort offerings and amenities” in Boracay and Cavite. The planned Boracay project, Boracay Newcoast, involves four hotels with 1,500 rooms, a plaza, and an entertainment center.[53] 

Leisure activities available on or near Boracay include horseback riding, scuba divingdiving helmetsnorkelingwindsurfingkiteboarding, cliff diving, parasailing.

Boracay is the site of an 18-hole par 72 golf course designed by Graham Marsh.[54] In addition, as of 2010, Boracay has in excess of 350 beach resorts offering more than 2,000 rooms ranging in quality from five-star to budget accommodation.[55] In addition, Boracay offers a wide range of restaurants, bars, pubs, and nightclubs.

landmark natural rock formation, Boracay’s Rock, juts prominently directly in front of Willy’s Beach Resort. (Source: Wikipedia).


Fauna   (Source:  wikipedia)

At least three species of flying foxes has been recorded to inhabit Boracay namely the giant golden-crowned flying fox (Aceradon jubatus),the giant fruit bat (Pteropus vampyrus), and the small flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus). Their population is concentrated on the northern side of the island in Barangay Yapak where the hunting of bats was made illegal through a local ordinance.[47]

According to the Coastal Ecosystem Conservation and Adaptive Management (CECAM), a study led by the Japan International Cooperation Agency conducted from 2010 to 2015, noted a 70.5 percent decrease of Boracay’s coral cover from 1988 to 2011. The study attributed the worse drop in coral cover from 2008 to 2011 to the 38.4 percent increase of tourist arrivals combined with poorly monitored snorkeling activity in coral rich areas.[48][49]The Boracay Foundation Inc. (BFI) made efforts to remedy the situation by launching a “refurbishment” program for the corals. In 2017, the BFI claims the number of corals in Boracay increased from 15 to 20 percent since 2015 due to its project.[50]

According to the Department of Tourism of the Philippines, there are a recorded 1,725,483 visitors to Boracay in 2016. In 2015, there were 250 thousand people who visited the island. Assuming the average length of stay of tourists to Boracay is 3 days, there are 14,182 tourists in Boracay daily as of 2016 adding to the 33,109 official population of the island.[56] According to Malay municipal records, more than 2 million tourists visited the island in 2017.[51]  (Source: Wikipedia)


Source:  (the Wikipedia)

Boracay has been experiencing an increased coliform bacteria population since the 1990s which contributed to a 60 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 1997. Although a potable water supply system, a solid waste disposal system, as well as a sewage treatment plant which began operation in 2003,  were installed to remedy the insufficient sewage and septic conditions in the island, environmental concerns regarding coliform bacteria persisted due to noncompliance of some business establishments in the island.[30]

In 2004, only 51 percent of hotels and restaurants in Boracay, and 25 percents of all households were connected to the island’s central sewage system. In 2005, Boracay was declared a “special tourism zone”. In April 2006, Arroyo gave the PTA administrative control over Boracay, to be exercised in coordination with the provincial government. In 2009, Boracay Island Water Co. (BIWC), won a contract to improve the supply of potable water and install an efficient sewerage system.[30]

Boracay has experienced abnormally high algae growth since February 2015, due to sewage being dumped into the waters surrounding the islands.[30] In early 2018, 50 to 60 percent of all establishments in Boracay were compliant to the Clean Water Act of 2004 according to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.[51] 



2018 Closure  (Source: Wikipedia)

Due to worsening environmental conditions in Boracay, President Rodrigo Duterte in February 2018 said he plans to close the resort island which he described as a “cesspool”. He has instructed Environment and Natural Resources Secretary Roy Cimatu to resolve the issue.[32] In a cabinet meeting, President Duterte ordered the full closure of the island, for six months effective April 26, 2018, to rehabilitate and resolve the environmental issues surrounding Boracay.[33]  (Source:  Wikipedia) 



Earthniversity would like to thank the Radio-TV Malacanang for their video about “Boracay: One Month After Closure” which is reported by Assistant Secretary of PCOO, Ms. Margaux “Mocha” Uson.

We would like also to acknowledge our sources of information about Boracay Island, the Wikipedia.  Complete citations were made regarding the Facts and Figures about Boracay as taken from The Wikipedia.


Earthniversity does not own the video posted here as it is the property of RTVM, the Radio-TV Malacanang, a Philippine Government office under the Office of the President.  The Facts and Figures stated herein have been taken from the article about Boracay published at The Wikipedia.

* * * * * * * * * * *

As of this writing, Boracay Island is still undergoing rehabilitation.  This activity includes cleaning up, removal of illegal structures, improvement of roads and waterways, as well as constructions of water treatment facilities and other requirements needed for a more sustainable island-resort tourism project.

* * * * *

Photos of Boracay were provided by Henry Libo-on, Blogger at Touristang Pobre blog site.





Source: youtube, uploaded by FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Yes, “Soils A Solid Ground For Life”.  This is the theme of 2015 World Soil Day which is observed around the world.  This happens every December 5.  The United Nations has calendared this event annually after it was started in Thailand to commemorate the birthday of Thailand’s King Bhumibol Adulyadej who was born on December 5, 1927 at Mount Auburn Hospital at Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The event in Thailand was soon observed all over the world because of its significance and importance in sustainable development globally.

Under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Soil Day, gives emphasis, focus and importance on the conservation of the soil and all natural resources that play an important role in the conservation of the world’s soil.

Source: FAO Website.

According to the website of Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History under the heading Forces of Change, there are several factors that influence the formation of soil.  These are listed here under the acronym called ClORPT or Climate, Organisms, Relief, Parent Material and Time.


According to the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History under its topic Forces of Change, the following are the Five (5) ideas to help us better understand Soil and how to conserve it to attain a sustainable development.  Sustainability is defined by the International Institute For Sustainable Development (this link:

“Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts:

  • the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world’s poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
  • the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment’s ability to meet present and future needs.”

Going back to the topic, World Soil Day, let us have a snippet on the five (5) ideas about the Soil as presented by the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Here they are:

1. Soil Makes Life.

Plants grow in and from soils, and plants—directly or indirectly—feed almost all life on Earth.

Life Makes Soils

Soil-dwellers such as bacteria and fungi recycle once-living organisms into nutrients and soil organic matter (humus)—vital components of all soils.

Without soils, life would not exist as we know it.

Farm soil
A teaspoon of good farm soil contains up to 1 billion bacteria in more than 4,000 species.
© L. Clarke/Corbis
 Soils Breathe

From burrowers to bacteria, the organisms that live in soils respire. Most of them take in oxygen to do their work, and they give off carbon dioxide, just as humans do.

Soils breathe because they shelter and support living organisms.

Soil or Dirt?

Soils are more than dirt. Dirt is a mixture of minerals, air, water, and living and dead things. The possibilities are almost endless—bugs, bacteria, fungi, feces, nematodes, worms, roots, rotting plants, ice, minerals…

Soils have history! Their unique, colorful and exotic layers give us clues to how they have changed over time.

Soils are more than the sum of their parts.

2.  The Skin of the Earth

Over most of the Earth’s land lies a thin layer of soil—a complex and variable mixture of minerals, air, water, decaying remains of life, and countless living organisms.

The Earth’s “skin” is not one soil, but many soils—each with its own story. Tens of thousands of different soils cover the continents.

Soils are alive.

They are born, they age, they breathe.

Soils are constantly created and lost. Soils are everywhere in our everyday lives. Living soils sustain life on Earth.

Girl with a handful of soil
Photo courtesy Somos/Veer/Getty Images

3. Soil Ingredients

Air, water, minerals, and organic matter (living and non-living) are the basic ingredients of soils. They occur in many combinations. The relative proportions of these ingredients affect how a soil behaves, what kinds of plants grow in it, and how well they grow.

What’s not solid is just as important. Roots and organisms need the water and air that fill the spaces between soil particles.

4.  Soil Recipes

Different soil “recipes” yield different soils, depending on various “ingredients,” soil-forming factors, and time.

Soils begin to form when sediment, organic matter, or rock—parent material—is first deposited or exposed, often by water, wind, or ice.

Soils develop as parent material ages in place, changed by climate, soil organisms, and the terrain.

Soils take shape in surprising ways—as water moves minerals and elements from one layer to another, as living organisms take out nutrients and add organic matter, or as new minerals form.

Soils are constantly changing.

5.  CLORPT.  Soil scientists nickname the soil forming factors as CLORPT.


Source: youtube uploaded by CI or Conservation International.

If the Soil can speak, this is what it is going to say:

“I am the Soil, I’m in the hills and in the valleys, the farms, the orchards

Without me, humans could not exist, but you treat me like dirt

Do you realize that I’m just a thin skin on this planet?

And that I’m actually alive, full of organisms that grow your food

But I’m broken, aching, overused, sick, because of you

You have withered me away

To less than half of what I used to be just over 100 years ago

Are you paying attention?

I am turning …… to dust

So, maybe you can treat me with a little more respect

I suppose you still want to eat, right?”


(If you have any correction on the foregoing message of the Soil, please let us know, thank you)

The Soil is “personified” by Edward Norton, famous American actor, director, producer, scriptwriter and activist.  Here’ s his photo.

Edward Norton (source: wikipedia)


Finally, soil can be a fragile part of the ground cover.  Therefore, there is a continuing need to protect ground cover from erosion and other impacts that could damage soil or cause its disappearance from the ground.

The video that you just watched summed it all up.  Earthniversity hopes that you can implement programs and projects in your own community or LGU, the Local Government Unit, that is geared towards conservation and protection of the SOIL.


Here’s more discussion about the World Soil Day.


Model of Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report of a BRT System Project


The Bus Rapid Transit System or BRT is designed to lessen traffic congestion in urban centers as well as decrease travel time from one point to the next therefore increasing productivity in all sectors of the society such as: social sector and economic sector among others.

In this post, Earthniversity shares the Final Report as of February 14, 2015 of the Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System Project which is also known as DART or  Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit.

“Dar es Salaam, is located on a natural harbour on the Eastern Indian Ocean coast of Africa, about 45 km (28 mi) south of the island of Zanzibar. The city is the main port of entry to Tanzania and the transportation hub of the country.  Dar es Salaam has a population of more than 4.3 million people living in its metropolitan area (Dar es Salaam Region). Spoken languages are English (official) and Swahili (national).


Aerial photo of Dar es Saalam City, Tanzania. Photo Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim

For details of this Report, please open this link stated hereunder.


Earthniversity does not claim ownership of this Final Report on Tanzania’s Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System.  It is produced by Kyong Dong Engineering Co., Ltd. in association with Ambicon Engineering(T) Limited.


  3. Photo of Muhammad Mahdi Karim

Waste Management Practices of Canberra and Bermuda

One of the problems that bother any Local Government Unit or LGU in most of the Third World Countries is the lack of funds to finance their Solid Waste Management Programs and Projects.  This may include, the construction of a sanitary landfill, a waste treatment facility or any other means of waste management.  If this happened, most of these LGUs will, therefore, find it difficult to solve the increasing problem of environment-friendly waste disposal.

There are several funding agencies of foreign governments that can help finance the construction of Landfill and Incinerator. LGU officials, however, do not want to tie their LGUs up to the financiers because of high-interest rates, and the uncertain tenure of office of the local officials.

In the Philippines, LGU officials serve a term of three (3) years with two re-elections.

When both, the Landfill and the Incinerator would be very difficult to construct because of lack of funds and the cities are not willing to avail of loans from these international loan agencies like World Bank, and the uncertainty of getting re-elected, then these LGUs, specifically their Local Chief Executives as well as the Council Members would resort to the use of Controlled Dump Site or Open Dump Sites. Most probably, the latter will be the last resort for LGUs.

Basically, open dumpsites are unsanitary. No matter how Local Government Units insist that strict measures are done to protect the health of the community and its people living near these dumpsites, the truth remains that this practice is still unsanitary.

A few LGUs resorted to privatizing their Garbage Collection and Disposal. Some cities and towns succeeded in this approach while a few of them failed as the approach was loaded with corruption.  The mechanism is sometimes unknown to the Taxpayers and the voting public.  Thus, the public sometimes wonders why the garbage in their community is not collected regularly.  In a few cases, the Garbage Collectors demand money from Households so that they can regularly visit that community to collect their garbage.  A situation that frustrates the people and affects the cleanliness and sanitation of their community.

Let us have a glimpse of the Solid Waste Management Program of several cities nationwide.

Photo by Travelfoodguru

Photo by James Betia of Journeying James

Source: cdn.c.photoshelter


There are three (3) methods of waste management that are acceptable in many countries around the world. According to Jeni Braxton of Ezine, these are Landfill, Incineration, and Recycling.


Amongst the many waste management methods, using a landfill is probably the most practiced in more areas of the world than any other method. Landfills are often old and abandoned quarries and mining areas. Considered the most cost-effective way of waste disposal, about 75% of the cost of implementation is attributable to the collection and transportation of waste from residential and businesses to the landfills. The waste is layered in thin spreads and then compacted, with a layer of clean earth covering the waste material before more layers are added over time.


Incineration as a disposal method involves burning the trash. Sometimes this is simply referred to as thermal treatment, as a general category of high-temperature treatment of trash material. This method can be used to transform waste into heat, gas, steam, and ash. One of the advantages of incineration is that with this method, refuse volume can be reduced by half or more and it requires little usage of land. An incineration facility can be built in a small area to process huge amounts of waste. It definitely saves a lot of space compared with using a landfill only. This method is popular in countries like Japan where space is limited.


Recycling of waste material means taking the materials and transforming them into new products. This is a key concept in modern waste minimization philosophy. It’s about lessening the strain on the environment through minimizing the need to fully dispose of (eg. by incineration and causing air pollution) the waste generated and reducing the need to introduce new raw materials into the environment and then having to dispose of them later. In your everyday living, you may already be separating out paper products, aluminum soda cans or glass bottles into different waste containers so that these could be recycled. When bringing your own shopping bag to the supermarket instead of using a new plastic bag, that’s another way of recycling. (Source:


In the Philippines, I visited the City of Tagaytay, about two hours from Manila (I guess this included the traffic). Tagaytay is part of Cavite of the CALABARZON Provinces which are: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon.

Tagaytay City, Source:

Rotonda, Tagaytay City

Tagaytay Highlands, Source:

Cable Cars, Tagaytay Highlands. Source: (Thank you

TAGAYTAY CITY was then considered as a model in Solid Waste Management in the country. I personally toured their facility which included, the waste segregation site, the waste treatment site, the composting site, and the material recovery facility as well as their Mushroom Growing Project. Many cities followed the best practices of Tagaytay.
A few cities, however, ventured into constructing their own Landfill sites with loans acquired through the assistance of the national government. Other cities implemented the Tagaytay Model, while the others continued the Open Dump Sites and the Controlled Dump Sites.


Payatas Controlled Dump Site
Quality Disposal Facility for Quality Community
Managed and Operated by:
Office of the City Mayor
Payatas Operations Group
Quezon City, Philippines

Area – 9.70 Ha.
Waste Intake – 7,000 cum./day
Average Wt. – 1,402 TPD
Per Capita Generation – .550kg./P/D
Waste Density – 210 Kg./Cum.
Average Daily Truck Trips – 500 trips/day
Payatas Controlled Dump Facility

The conversion of the Payatas Dumpsite into a Controlled Dump Facility includes Engineering Works Program (EWP), Social Responsibility Program (SRP), and Operation and Management of the disposal facility with the following objectives:

* Compliance with R.A. 9003
* To extend the life of the disposal facility for another 2 1/2 years at the least
* To ensure the safety of the people living near the dumpsite and eliminate the risk of another trash slide
* To provide livelihood opportunities to Payatas residents.

General Plan

1.Conversion to Control Dump Facility
Slope Stability – Re profiling to attain the side slope of 1:2.5

Leachate Collection & Treatment
Storm Waste Drain (Drainage System)
Top Soil Covering
Methane Gas to Power Generation
Material Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant

2. Dump Site Operation
3. Social Engineering
4. Final Option

The Conversion Project is being implemented by IPM Environmental Services, Inc. (IPM-ESI) as the General Contractor and Sinclair Knight Merts as Consultant. The project covers the active and the inactive dumpsite having a combined land area of about 20 hectares.

Engineering Works Program

Slope Re-profiling – The 60-70 degrees side slopes of the dumpsite is re-profiled to 23-25 degrees or a slope ratio of about 1:2.5 and then covered with soil to ensure slope stability. Side cutting or berms are also constructed every 10 meters (slope-length) to minimize erosion and slope failure.

Leachate Collection and Re-circulation – The construction of peripheral leachate and then re-circulated or pumped onto the soil capped mounds to affect the growth of grass. Leachate re-circulation also helps to enhance decomposition and minimizes the discharge of leachate into the waterways.

Storm Water Drain – Construction of drainage canals along the periphery of the dumpsites serves as a drainage system in the area also acts as a catch basin for surface water runoff from the dumpsites.

Access Roads – The construction of all-weather access roads around the dumpsites facilitate: daily waste dumping, de-clogging operations, maintenance of slopes, and for an emergency.

Social Responsibility Program

The SR program includes:
1. Institute strengthening of existing workers’ organization;
2. Assistance in terms of access to basic services;
3. Establishment of Materials Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant (MRWVRP);
4. Market Development
5. Vocational Training; and
6. Enhancement of Emergency Response Term.

Payatas Gas to Power Generation

Methane gas is a natural by-product of decay and decomposition at dumpsites. Unless managed well, it poses real health and safety hazards to people living and working in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsites.

“Spontaneous combustion and fires are the common results of improper management of methane gas”.

The PCDF has gone one step further than merely managing methane gas: it has brought in the technical assistance of the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) for the possible utilization of methane gas at the dumpsites as a secondary power source for the facility as well as the community through the construction of a landfill/dumpsite gas (LFG/DG) collection system.

The Philippine Biosciences Company (PhilBLO), a private contractor engaged in biogas technology, supplied the 100-kilowatt generator set and installed the methane gas collection system at the facility, mainly using moisture traps as gas buffers. The IPM-ESI have installed streetlights from the dumpsite to the POG office. It is estimated that the current level of methane gas at the dumpsite could supply the power need of the facility over the next 10 years.

Tire Retrieval Project

Another component of the conversion project is the continuing search for an economically advantageous and environmentally friendly method for the disposal of used tires.

Towards this end, the Quezon City government tapped the services of Union Cement Corporation (UCC) for the processing of retrieved and/or collected used tires using Cement Kiln Co-processing technology.

The following are the photos showing the selected portions of the Payatas Controlled Dump Site Facility.

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Source: Getty Images…thank you.

Citation: Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of pictures


I had the opportunity to visit and saw the Solid Waste Management practices of Queanbeyan City in Australia when I attended a short course on Designing Sustainable Development under the Master in Urban Management program at the University of Canberra. I was sponsored by AusAID or the Australian Agency For International Development. Queanbeyan is located about 30 minutes away from Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory, and other neighboring New South Wales communities.

Queanbeyan and the neighboring communities had a complete facility for their waste management program. They have a huge building for waste segregation, another site for the recyclables like pressed soda cans, and bales of waste paper, among others. They have a huge composting site where compost materials from garbage, leaves, and trees are made into fertilizer and sold to local gardeners and others.

Queanbeyan City Council Building. I had my OJT with their City Planning & Development Office. Photo source:

There was also a material recovery facility or MRF somewhere between Canberra and Queanbeyan which is located near the landfill site where reusable materials like refrigerator, chandelier, cabinet or chairs among others can be purchased by people who found them still useful. I also saw a power generator where leachate from the landfill was converted into electricity. It can be used to light lamp posts and other small-government offices like Day Care Center or Library.


As far as wastewater treatment was concerned, Canberra has a water treatment plant or facility located in what was called the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. Canberra’s 90 million liters of wastewater daily are treated through several stages on several big ponds. On the last stage of the water treatment, a zero bacteria-clean water is produced. The guide even told us that the water is potable. This clean water was emptied into the Molonglo River. Clean water was therefore used by farmers from Canberra up to the southern reaches of the river, let us say, Adelaide. Inhabitants of the river like platypus are fed with clean water that sustains biodiversity in the river and the surrounding areas.

I visited this facility in 2000. That was a long time ago, but for sure, this facility serves its purpose until today. I posted a video of that facility here for your reference.

The City of Canberra. Source:

The video hereunder shows the Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. This is uploaded by ACTEW – Australian Capital Territory Electricity & Water Corporation.

Source: youtube, uploaded by ACTEW Water, Canberra, Australia, dated October 21, 2014.


Turning Trash Into Electricity is what this video is all about. Watch how garbage or trash is converted into electricity and appreciate how the City of Alexandria upholds the ideals of protecting and conserving the environment.

Source: youtube, uploaded by Planet Forward –


Now, let’s talk about Bermuda. Last September, I visited Bermuda and my interest in the use of incinerator in solid waste management was once again awakened because of my curiosity at the huge number of tourists and residents living in Bermuda and the garbage or waste that they generate.

Bermuda has a small land area left that using it for landfill may not be a good idea, much more sustainable with the growing tonnage of garbage generated every month. I also learned that Bermuda has no choice but to go for Incinerator.

The photo shows the neatly sealed black bags containing garbage from a local store at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda. Photos below show the world-famous Horseshoe Bay Beach and its pink sand. During high season, millions of tourists visit Bermuda. On a regular basis, about 600,000 tourists visit the island each year.

The Royal Naval Dockyard viewed from Norwegian Cruise Line – Breakaway. The Dockyard is the cruise ships’ doorway to Bermuda.
(Photos by Henry Libo-on)

In 1987, the Government of Bermuda engaged the company the Von Roll Ltd., of Switzerland to study and design a waste treatment facility for the island which included the design and construction of the incinerator. Bermuda constructed the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility at the cost of $70 Million.   It has been in operation beginning October 27, 1994.

For me, this on-going program of the Bermudian Government is one of the Best Practices as far as the use of the Incinerator is concerned.  Earthniversity is, therefore, sharing this story with our readers and followers worldwide. More specifically those who are government officials, urban and development planners, environmentalists and stakeholders in the Philippines and other parts of the world who can learn from the Bermudian Experience.

I have written hereunder the link regarding the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility. Please click the link provided here for the complete facts and figures about the facility.

Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, Bermuda

There is also a video of the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility that I posted here. The video is produced by Wayne Hackman and he was happy to share this with you. You will learn from this video that – at Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, NOTHING IS WASTED.

Source: youtube, uploaded by Wayne Hackman on February 14, 2014.
Thanks, Wayne Hackman for your approval to use this video.


1. I know that there are pros and cons as far as Incinerator is concerned but as an observer, I always respect the decision of the Local Government Unit (LGU) if they chose to use the Incinerator as a means of waste management. My confidence level is high as far as the LGU’s ability to maintain a high standard in the protection of the environment – the LAW which is: the Land, the Air, the Water and let us add – the Atmosphere.

For LGUs in the Third World Countries:

2. When LGUs cannot afford the cost of a Landfill or the operation of a Sanitary Controlled Dump Site, then it resorts to the use of Open Dump Site. In this case, the LGU must strengthen its campaign and implementation of the 4 Rs which are: Re-use, Reduce, Recycle and Rot or composting thus, minimizing the garbage that goes to the Garbage Dump Site.

3. The LGUs must encourage all villages to recycle from the source – meaning, from the household levels, offices, or business establishments levels. There must be separate bags or containers for recyclables like bottles, soda cans, plastic, and paper, among others. All households must be encouraged to have a compost pit for their kitchen waste. This compost pit can produce fertilizer to be used in the HH – household – gardens. Segregation at source must be strictly implemented in offices, both public and private institutions. Hospital waste must be separated and must be disposed of properly using a healthy and environment-friendly protocol.

4. Villages or Barangays must have their own MRF or Material Recovery Facility which will be the depository of reusable materials like refrigerators, cabinets, bottles, and others.

The LGU must also construct a Material Recovery Facility or MRF for the LGU where villages or “Barangay” without MRF can drop their reusable and recyclable materials. The MRF may have a display center for reusable but cheap materials that people could buy like cabinets, sofa, chairs, beds, tables, lampshades, and many others.

I saw this kind of MRF being practiced at Queanbeyan City in Australia. In the U.S. reusable materials like beds, tables, even television which HH does not need anymore, are placed on the side of the road to be picked up by the Waste Management trucks on a scheduled date. However, before the WM trucks could pick these things up, some residents who find these things still useful would pick them first, maybe do a little repair and use them.

5. There must be a waste segregation facility in the LGU. All waste that is not recyclables and is not for composting can be sent to the Controlled Dump Site.

6. Controlled Dump Site. The example is the Payatas Controlled Dump Site. (Previously presented).

7. The LGUs with support from significant stakeholders must conduct a continuous IEC – Information and Education Campaign on Solid Waste Management, i.e. 4 Rs, involving the broadcast, print, television, and social media.

8. The LGU must identify business organizations or companies dealing with Recycling of metals, bottles, construction waste, and many others and sign a memorandum of agreement to service the needs of the LGU. The LGU must assist these service providers in locating their recycling center and/or warehouse so they can ship these recyclables to the final recycling facility.

If I missed mentioning something that you might feel to be very important for your LGU or local situation, then feel free to add them.

I hope we, again, presented to you another informative post on how we can protect and conserve the environment through effective and efficient waste management.

If you know of any “Best Practice” which could be a helpful tip to protect and conserve our environment and the Earth, please share it with us. Thanks for following Earthniversity.


Earthniversity acknowledges its different sources of information, text, videos, and pictures. They were all properly cited on the pages where their materials were used.

Finally, you may also visit my blog site for more articles written about Bermuda with pictures. Here is the link:

Updated on November 25, 2019.

The Soil Speaks

The most vulnerable part of the planet earth is the Soil.  It is like a sponge, it absorbs anything and everything.  Do you think the Soil has no limits to what humans do to it?  Please listen to this conversation – the Soil Speaks.   Through the medium of “personification”  Edward Norton,  an American actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and activist, speaks on behalf of the Soil.  Please watch this video uploaded by ConservationDotOrg and Conservation International on youtube as part of CI’s global newest branding of the green movement initiatives which  supports.  Here it is:

The Soil Says:

“I am the Soil, I’m in the hills and in the valleys, the farms, the orchards

Without me, humans could not exist, but you treat me like dirt

Do you realize that I’m just a thin skin on this planet?

And that I’m actually alive, full of organisms that grow your food

But I’m broken, aching, overused, sick, because of you

You have withered me away

To less than half of what I used to be just over 100 years ago

Are you paying attention?

I am turning …… to dust

So, maybe you can treat me with a little more respect

I suppose you still want to eat, right?”


(If you have any correction on the foregoing message of the Soil, please let us know, thank you)

The Soil is “personified” by Edward Norton, famous American actor, director, producer, scriptwriter and activist.  Here’ s his photo.

Edward Norton (source: wikipedia)

Earthniversity would like to thank the Conservation International, ConservationDotOrg for uploading this video on youtube.  Earthniversity is just happy to share this video with our followers and website visitors throughout the world.


Earth Song by Michael Jackson With Lyrics

Source: Youtube. Originally written and composed by Michael Jackson in a hotel room in Austria under the title “What About Us”.

What about sunrise, what about rain,
What about all the things, that you said we were to gain,
What about killing fields, Is there a time,
What about all the things, that you said was yours and mine.

Did you ever stop to notice, all the blood we’ve shed before,
Did you ever stop to notice, this crying earth, this weeping shores.
a a aaaaaaaaah, ooooooooh, (2x)
What we’ve done to the world, look what we’ve done,
What about all the peace, that you pledge your only Son,
What about flowering fields, is there a time,
What about all the dreams, that you said was yours and mine,
Did you ever stop to notice, all the children dead from war,
Did you ever stop to notice, this crying earth this weeping shores,
a a aaaaaaahhh…..oooooooohhhh (2x)
I used to dream, I used to glance beyond the stars,
Now I don’t know where we are, Although I know we’ve drifted far,
a a aaaaaaaahhh……oooooooooohhh, (4x)
Hey, what about yesterday (what about us)
What about the seas (what about us)
The heavens are falling down (what about us)ĵ
I can’t even breathe (what about us)
What about apathy (what about us)
I needed you (what about us)
What about nature’s worth
It’s our planet’s womb (what about us)
What about animals (what about it)
We’ve turned kingdoms to dust (what about us)
What about elephants (what about us)
Did we lost their trust (what about us)
What about crying whales (what about us)
We’re ravaging the seas (what about us)
What about forest trails
Burnt despite our pleas (what about us)
What about the holy land (what about it)
Torn about by creed (what about us)
What about the common man (what about us)
Can’t we set him free (what about us)
What about the children dying (what about us)
Can’t you hear them cry (what about us)
Where did we go wrong
(ooo, ooo)
someone tell me why (what about us)
What about babies born (what about it)
What about the days (what about us)
What about their joy (what about us)
What about the man (what about us)
What about the crying man (what about us)
What about Abraham (what about us)
What about death again
Do we give a damn…
aaaaaaaaahh oooooohhhhh (4x)

The main reason why we posted this song is to share the beautiful lyrics which Michael Jackson expertly and creatively crafted to convey the deepest meaning of what’s happening on our planet Earth. For me, the song expresses the grief — your grief, my grief and figuratively speaking, the grief of Mother Earth at the extent of destruction and devastation that man had caused on the planet Earth. The hope for Earth’s recovery and restoration reverberates at the ending of the song…yes, we give a damn…a message that, hopefully, will be heard by all of mankind and energize them to do something better for the protection and conservation of what Mother Earth has provided for her residents.


Thank you Vevo for uploading this video on youtube.
“Earth Song” was written and composed by Michael Jackson. It is one of Jackson’s most popular songs appreciated by Environmentalists all over the world. Earhtniversity exerted efforts to check the original lyrics of the song. Please let us know if you have comments about this by using the comment portion of this post. Thank you.

Photo by: Henry Libo-on at Horseshoe Bay Beach, Bermuda, UK.

Photo by: Marmar Dagu-ob at Suyac Island Mangrove Tree Planting Project, Sagay City, Philippines.

earth hour 2014
Photo courtesy of Councilor Ann Marie Palermo, Bacolod City, Philippines.

Photo by: Henry Libo-on at Mambukal, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

Photo by: Henry Libo-on at El Nido, Palawan, Philippines. El Nido and its 40+ islands and islets are Environmentally Protected Areas. (Location of Bourne Legacy, the movie)