Nga-a Naga Baha’ Sa Inyo Banwa?

The Root Cause Of Flooding In The Urban Center And How It Can Be Mitigated

By Henry Libo-on

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Materials used or quoted here are not the property of the writer and the Earthniversity. We highly acknowledge that.  Thanks. 

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In the beginning, there was a land where grasses, trees, and plants grow abundantly.  There were rivers, streams, brooks, creeks, and other bodies of water that were on this piece of land. Then people came to establish their settlement on this land.  They built homes, schools, markets, churches, buildings for the use of government, commercial establishments and offices, among others. They also built road networks and dug canals that served as drainage for water used in the village as well as water brought by the rain.  The drainage was built in strategic areas of the land and the drainage system dumps its water into the rivers and finally the sea.

As the life of people improved, they bought cars and other motor vehicles that created a need for the village to concrete the road so that the cars can travel smoothly. In the beginning, the rainwater flows into the drainage as smoothly as it could be and the areas of the road which were not cemented absorbed the rainwater as quickly as it poured.

Many years passed, and high rise buildings were constructed.  Not only a few but many. Some of these buildings were even constructed above the creeks and streams without thought of its long-term effects on the village.  These buildings were occupied by people who also used water which will ultimately be going to the drainage to be emptied to the rivers and the sea.

Businesses flourished and several thousands of people were in the central business district, the malls, the offices, the restaurants, entertainment areas and on the road, among others.  The presence of people was accompanied by the presence of garbage. Every person visiting the village proper is consciously or unconsciously disposing of a certain amount of garbage such as paper, plastic cups, and water bottles, and others. 

Every day a certain amount of garbage was also scattered on the village’s road and that sometimes found their way into the Drainage. For several years this situation had been observable around the Village that most people also questioned the lack of discipline among its population. 

So, the village leaders hired cleaners to maintain the cleanliness of the roads and other places in the village. But the problem persisted. 

Then on an unexpected day, the rain fell.  It was heavy rain that lasted for a day. The rainwater has nowhere to go because the land had been covered with cement, a cemented road, a cemented parking area, cemented sidewalks, etcetera and so on and so forth.

The rainwater cannot also flow through the drainage system because these were clogged with plastic and other solid waste materials.  Most drainages were also covered with mud, sand or soil thus blocking the flow of rainwater. 

The drainage system was as old as the village.  Because of old age, the drainage system was not properly repaired and maintained and thus became unserviceable. The village leaders tried to repair the drainage system but they only do the repair in one area and forget the next line of drainage.  When they continue with the repair and maintenance of the drainage system, the village leaders made repairs in another part of the village forgetting the last line of the repaired drainage system.  

The rainwater will always find a way to flow back to the sea.  But it cannot properly flow to the creeks and rivers because the drainage system was also filled with garbage that blocked the natural flow of the rainwater. If the rainwater continues to flow through the repaired drainage, the rainwater will stop in the next clogged drainage. 

Because of the modernity of society, some human settlements constructed perimeter fence around their settlement thus blocking the natural flow of rainwater to the river.  Most areas of these settlements were also cemented, their roads, their sidewalks, even their yards thus eliminating the absorption of the rainwater to the ground.

With these events unfolding in the village, the people were surprised if not shocked that a few hours of rain resulted in floods. The rainwater has accumulated on the roads where people and vehicles pass.  In some areas of the village, the rainwater reached the waist level and in other areas of the village, the water reaches the knees of people. 

Cars and people were trapped in the floods. In some areas of the village, homes were damaged, appliances were broken, and the worst case of all, some lost their loved ones in the floods.

A few hours of rain resulted in the “birth” of new rivers all over the village that made the people angry at their village leaders for their lack of planning and implementation of the appropriate Flood Control and Drainage Program where billions of taxpayers money had been allocated for that purpose. 

And then it dawned upon them that their Village had several major rivers that can serve as Water Catchments when heavy rain pours. But where are they? Of course, they realized that these big rivers had been the dumpsites of the Villagers’ garbage and other wastes. Thus, clogging the rivers. The garbage that stayed in the river for a long time had become soft that caused siltation and too much mud in these riverways. 

So, who’s to blame? The Villagers? The Village Leaders? 

Some Villagers complain that the Drainage Improvement Project has become a “milking cow” for the corrupt Village Leaders. Other villagers believe that the Village Leaders are not competent to solve the problems of the Village.  On the other hand, some Villagers argue that the Village Leaders do not want to solve the problem so that they can implement more programs and projects thus requiring huge funding and in the end, the Village Leaders can amass big wealth through Corruption. 

In the end. what is the root cause of flooding in the urban center? Is it the Incompetence of the Village Leaders to find the best strategy to solve the problem?

Why does flooding occurs most of the time in the “concrete jungle” but less often in the residential areas where there are less cemented roads?

Why does flooding occur when there are big rivers, creeks, and streams that can serve as rainwater catchments? What happened to these rivers and creeks? Perhaps, the Villagers should check with their Local Leaders how the Zoning Ordinance, Environmental Compliance, as well as other Legislations or Laws have been implemented in their Village. Thus, something has to be done to mitigate the Flooding in the Village. 

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So, let us check the literature about flood control and see how the Villagers can learn from this.  We selected the article published by WAVIN, a “Dutch manufacturer of plastic pipes for drainage and water supply purposes”. The company is based in Zwolle, Netherlands.  Their published article is entitled “10 Measures To Prevent Urban Flooding”.

Before we proceed to the List, this writer/researcher, and Earthniversity would like to emphasize that we do not own the discussion hereunder presented. We acknowledged WAVIN as the sole source of this information or article.  Thank you.

Here are the 10 Measures To Prevent Urban Flooding by WAVIN. 

  • Create a ‘sponge city’. This concept has become very popular in China, a country that has seen the rate of urban flooding more than double in recent years. According to Kongjian Yu, the Dean of Peking University’s College of Architecture and Landscape Architecture, “a sponge city is one that can hold, clean, and drain water in a natural way – using an ecological approach.”  So, rather than funneling rainwater away, a sponge city retains it for its own use, within its own boundaries. The uses include: irrigating gardens and urban farms, recharging depleted aquifers, replacing or replenishing the water used to flush toilets, and processing it so that it can be clean enough to use as drinking water. Arcadis, who incidentally is one of Wavin’s strategic MEP customers, has been appointed principal consultant for China’s Sponge City Project in Wuhan, the first of 16 cities to be used as beta sites in an initiative spearheaded by the Central government. The world will be watching and waiting to see how this new approach to stormwater management will pan out.

Hereunder is the link about the topic. Source: Business Insider at

China is building 30 ‘sponge cities’ that aim to soak up floodwater and prevent disaster

yan park 2

The photo shows the Yanweizhou Park in Jinhua, eastern China. Source: Business Insider at  (Leanna Garfield, November 10, 2017). 

  • Green roofs/rooftop gardens. Green Roofs that are covered with vegetation by their very nature absorb rainwater and help to mitigate flooding, They have become very popular across Europe. The benefits, as they relate to water, are straightforward: for the building owner, it’s a stormwater management tool; for the community, it reduces stormwater runoff; and for the environment, it prevents combined sewer overflow, neutralizes the acid rain effect and removes nitrogen pollution from the rainwater.

10 measures to prevent flooding: green roofs

Green Roof at Culembor, The Netherlands.  Photo credit WAVIN at 

  • Create flood plains and overflow areas for rivers. There was a time when floodplains covered large stretches along European rivers. Today, because of urban sprawl, less than half remain. There is a movement to restore these floodplains because of their significant role in flood protection, water management, and nature conservation. Essentially, what floodplains do is retain and absorb water, thereby shielding nearby towns from the effects of heavy rainfall by towns from the effects of heavy 

The photo shows the Floodplain at Isle of Wight, the United Kingdom following a 1 to 10-year flood. Source: WAVIN at

  • Separating rainwater from the sewer system. To improve water management and protect the sewer from damage cities are beginning to revamp their underground pipe and drainage systems – by separating rainwater from the sewer system. The separation enables the wastewater treatment plant to function properly, without it being overburdened by large quantities of stormwater.

10 measures to prevent flooding: separate sewer from rain water with Wavin pipes

The photo is sourced from WAVIN at

  • Install water infiltration and attenuation systems.  Nothing says rainwater management like a sustainable water attenuation and infiltration solution. With the Wavin attenuation and infiltration systems like Q-BicQ-BB, AquaCell and our latest product, Q-Bic Plus you can create underground tanks quickly and easily. Wavin units are designed for use in locations where there are heavy traffic loads and where local groundwater levels are high. The new unit is based on a modular concept that only uses side panels where they are really needed in an infiltration/attenuation tank. is lightweight and can be clicked together, without the use of connector pins or tools, which greatly increases installation speed. Made from virgin polypropylene, it is supremely robust and can withstand extreme loads.

10 measures to prevent flooding: Infiltration and attenuation tanks by Wavin - Q-Bic Plus

The photo shows the men working on attenuation and infiltration tanks. Photo credit: WAVIN at

  • Keep the sewer system clean, so it can do its job.

    It seems like an obvious measure, but sewer systems can clog up with waste, debris, sediment, tree roots and leaves.  The more traditional sewer pipes have a tendency to rust and corrode, compounding the problem. Wavin’s plastic sewer pipe systems and Tegra manholes never corrode and are easy to clean and inspect. 

    10 measures to prevent flooding: keep the sewers clean! In the picture: Wavin Tegra 1000 G2 Manhole - installing lower Ladder Bracket

The photo shows the Wavin Tegra 1000 G2 Manhole – installing lower Ladder Bracket.  Source: WAVIN at  
  • Sustainable drainage: permeable pavement, sidewalks, and gardens.

    In some urban areas, green space is considered a luxury. On the ground and on rooftops, there is so much concrete. Concrete is not permeable. It does not absorb rainwater. It blocks it and redirects it to the drainage systems which, in turn, often become clogged and then the water overflows into the streets and sidewalks. Unchecked, this will cause flooding. The concept of sustainable drainage makes perfect sense. As part of environmental initiatives that are underway in Europe and across the globe, the recommendation is that impermeable surfaces be replaced with permeable materials such as grass and gardens.  This will allow the rainwater to drain into the soil. The process, known as infiltration, also serves to sustain plant life.

10 measures to prevent flooding: Sustainable drainage: permeable pavement, sidewalks and gardens 

This photo shows how to do Sustainable drainage: permeable pavement, sidewalks, and gardens. In the picture; half-open pavement with grass. Source: WAVIN at

Once again, Earthniversity emphasizes that we do not own the ideas, discussion, and photos, among others.  We fully acknowledged WAVIN as the source of this information which is cited in this presentation.  We consider WAVIN as experts in this field so we quoted their work here to help growing cities and towns or villages with their problem on Flooding and Drainage System improvement. 

  • Hope for the best, but plan or the worst.

Despite best rainwater management practices, homes and buildings may still be subject to flooding. As an extra precaution, retrofitting your home so as to minimize damage and/or injuries is a smart (and proactive) project.  Some measures include raising electrical outlets and sockets higher on the wall, waterproofing the building or home, ensuring that the windows and doors have weatherproof seals, and replacing MDF or plasterboard with more durable materials.

  • Improve flood warning mechanisms.

    Properly conveying advance warnings of impending storms and floods will not only give people the opportunity to be proactive in preventing damage to their property, but it will also save lives. In Europe, initiatives like this flood early warning system and dike monitoring are in progress to overhaul the manner in which natural disasters, such as flooding, can be accurately assessed and when (and how often) warnings should be communicated. State-of-the-art global forecast systems and early warning mechanisms are being finetuned, so as to “create an operational tool for decision-makers, including national and regional water authorities, water resource managers, hydropower companies, civil protection and first-line responders, and international humanitarian aid organizations.” (The European Commission – Joint Research Centre(JRC).

Improve flood warning mechanisms

Photo credit: WAVIN at  Earthniversity does not own this photo but thanks WAVIN for making this available on-line.  Earthinversity does not own any ideas being discussed here but acknowledged its source as WAVIN at  We consider WAVIN as experts in the field of flooding mitigation so we presented these ideas here to help our readers who are facing Flooding in their cities, towns or villages.  Thanks.

  • Take action!

We can’t just leave it up to the government, municipalities, environmentalists or urban planners to put an infrastructure in place to prevent urban flooding. We – each of us – must make it our personal responsibility to adapt to climate change. Whether it’s collecting rainwater or building a garden on top of our roofs, it’s imperative that we take the steps necessary to be part of the rainwater management solution. 

According to the European Environment Agency, “Annual flood losses can be expected to increase fivefold by 2050 and up to 17fold by 2080.” The EEA released a report on the need for climate change adaptation in Europe. The fact is that preventative measures need to be put into place sooner, rather than later. As for Wavin, we will continue to play a leading role in the development and production of forward-thinking, sustainable stormwater solutions – to diminish the challenges of urban flooding and do our part to adapt to the reality that is climate change.    

  • If the Village has several riverways, these can be utilized as water catchments. Engineering works should be done by experts.
  • Vacant land can also be utilized as water catchments.  Again, Engineers or experts in this work should be tapped.
  • Sidewalks, Gardens, and other spaces around any building or structures in the Village must construct permeable pavements.  This will enable the rainwater to be absorbed by the soil and thus lessening the volume of floodwater. 
  • Building owners must be required to adopt a Green Infrastructure Program which is making Gardens on the Rooftops of their Buildings and other Structures.
  • Residents of the Village must be encouraged to practice “Rain Harvesting” by catching the rainwater and placed them on big containers that can be used for watering the plants, flushing the toilets, laundry and even bathing.
  • Other projects that can help prevent rainwater from accumulating in just one place. 
  • Finally, the Villagers observed for so many years that the Engineering Team and the Village Leaders seem to have teamwork to commit fraud and corruption.  The residents of the village saw how the engineering team dig the road that was repaired about a year ago. Their explanation was they are going to construct the drainage. How on earth will this happen that they will construct the drainage when it appears that the area is in the middle of the road? Where was the last line of drainage that was built a few years ago? Is that a continuation of the newly built drainage? The people knew that it doesn’t look like it is.
  • The Villagers complain that the Engineering Team and the Village Leaders seem to have a Teamwork to commit fraud and corruption.  To the residents, this is clear as the sun.
  • The Villagers knew that their Leaders had been serving them for a long time, how come that they did not bother to clean up the many rivers in the Village to improve the flow of rainwater to the sea?
  • The residents knew that the Village Leaders cannot make an alibi that they do not know how to do it or need an expert to make a study on how to improve the drainage system of the Village. Why? Because the residents and some village leaders were involved in the production of several volumes of documents on the Feasibility Study on Drainage Improvement and Flood Control. What happened to these studies? Why is there a need to spend millions to make another study? Is corruption a part of this scheme? The Villages were aghast.
  • The construction boom that the Village Leaders were proud to talk about needs a second look from the point of view of the Village land use and zoning. Why was the construction of some tall buildings allowed to sit on “living” creeks or streams? What happened to the laws on the Environment? Who prepared their environment study and who approved their ECC’s or Environment Compliance Certificate? 
  • How about those subdivisions? Why were they allowed to construct a perimeter fence that covered the natural flow of rainwater to the creek or river? Whose fault is this, the residents? Who holds the implementation of the Law? Isn’t it the Village Leaders? So, why blame the residents of this flop in governance?
  • There is still time for the Villagers to improve the quality of life in this Village.  Perhaps, the Villagers should be aware that placing incompetent people to the job does not make their Village a Livable Village after all.
  • Finally, we are not experts on Flood Mitigation but good observers of how things should be done properly. When the Roman Empire constructed their roads, bridges, and aqueducts, the Romans do not have a college or a master’s degree in Engineering. But they built those roads, bridges, and aqueducts that withstood the test of time. The Egyptians were not graduate in Engineering but they built good infrastructures and even the Pyramids.
  • We are living in a modern world, so to speak but the Villagers knew that you do not dig the newly repaired road to construct drainage. You plan what you want to do and do it systematically. The Villagers knew that the builders are not Romans but the people knew that the builders are college degree holders. Don’t create a fraud of yourselves. 
  • This writer and Earthniversity thank our References and sources of information on how to mitigate urban flooding.
  • We hope you can improve on this by adding your own knowledge.  
  • We hope this Village can correct the mistakes in governance that their Village Leaders perpetrated.
  • Have a nice day.
  • 10 MEASURES TO PREVENT URBAN FLOODING as suggested by WAVIN will inspire all the Stakeholders in every Village, Town, and City to think of the ways in which Flooding can be mitigated.

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  • The link here is Wavin 10 Steps to prevent urban flooding.

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This researcher and Earthniversity do not claim ownership of this article and the ideas presented here.

The 10 Measures To Prevent Urban Flooding is taken from the article of the same title published on the website of WAVIN through  

We thank WAVIN through for sharing this article “10 Measures To Prevent Urban Flooding”.

We would also like to acknowledge Leanna Garfield of Business Insider for her article entitled “China is building 30 ‘sponge cities’ that aim to soak up floodwater and prevent disaster”.  Source:

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About WAVIN.

According to Wikipedia and I quote:

“Wavin B.V. is a Dutch manufacturer of plastic pipes, mainly for drainage and water supply purposes. The company was officially founded on 5 August 1955, its name deriving from water and vinyl chloride. The company provides plastic pipe systems and products for tap water, surface heating, and cooling, soil and waste, rainwater, distribution of drinking water and gas and telecom applications.

The company is headquartered in Zwolle, Netherlands and operates in 25 European countries. Via its central export organization Wavin Overseas, the company has a network of agents and licensed partners in Asia, Australia, Africa, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America. The Group also has a facility in Foshan, China.

Due to the common use of Wavin products, the name has become genericized in some parts of Ireland to refer to any manufacturer of orange-colored drainpipes[citation needed]. The company operates in three locations in Ireland, with the main manufacturing and distribution plant in BalbrigganNorth County Dublin, and additional offices in Lisburn and Cork.[1]

Wavin’s own Technology and Innovation Centre (Wavin T&I), employs more than 50 people to develop new products and systems with local Wavin companies. Products for the European market include the “smartFIX” push-fit fitting, the Tempower surface heating and cooling product, Tegra manholes and inspection chambers and the SiTech low noise in-house soil and waste system.”

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1. 10 Measures To Prevent Urban Flooding by Wavin at  Source:

2. “China is building 30 ‘sponge cities’ that aim to soak up floodwater and prevent disaster” by Leanna Garfield, November 10, 2017 Source:

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March 9, 2020.

Researched by Henry Libo-on.

x – x – x – x- x – x – x – x

Just an update. Today is August 17, 2020, and I discovered that another tool which can help in solving the problem of Flooding in a community is by conducting a Strategic Planning Workshop to be attended by all Stakeholders.

When the results of this StratPlan will be implemented it could help in the implementation of programs and projects that could help solve the problem of Flooding in a community. These programs and projects are going to be expensive. Is your community ready to spend its financial resources to solve flooding?

The problem is when pol pol liticians are not decisive to do this because they have other priorities to spend the money of the community. When this happens, the flooding continues. 

I would like to greet my avid readers from all over the world, Don Charisma, mikesteeden, masonmacias, oliverbuckleys, Mounzer, nathanfrenchs, austinschaefer, thebestfoodart, and many others. Stay safe everyone and enjoy the Summer.


Reviewed on November 15, 2020.


The world famous island of Boracay was closed from the public upon the order of Philippine President Rodrigo Roa Duterte.  From April 26 up to the time this article was written, a multi-sectoral group have joined efforts to clean up the island.  This video provided by RTVM or the Radio TV Malacanang, a government media agency, will give you a bird’s eye view of what has happened on Boracay since the time it was closed to the public.  Here’s Ms. Margaux “Mocha” Uson, Assistant Secretary, Presidential Communications Operations Office (PCOO) for the report.

Source:  RTVM, Radio TV Malacanang Facebook Page.

Map of Boracay.   Source:   or

Source:  or allboracay,ru


Geography of Boracay Island

(Source: wikipedia)

Boracay Island is located off the northwest corner of Panay Island, and belongs to the Western Visayas island-group, or Region VI, of the Philippines. The island is approximately seven kilometers long, dog-bone shaped with the narrowest spot being less than one kilometer wide, and has a total land area of 10.32 square kilometers.

South-facing Cagban Beach is located across a small strait from the jetty port at Caticlan on Panay island, and the Cagban jetty port serves as Boracay’s main entry and exit point during most of the year. When wind and sea conditions dictate, east-facing Tambisaan Beach serves as an alternative entry and exit point.[34] Boracay’s two primary tourism beaches, White Beach and Bulabog Beach, are located on opposite sides of the island’s narrow central area. White Beach faces westward and Bulabog Beach faces eastward. The island also has several other beaches.

White Beach, the main tourist attraction is about four kilometers long and is lined with resorts, hotels, lodging houses, restaurants, and other tourism-related businesses. In the central portion, for about two kilometers, there is a footpath known as the Beachfront Path separating the beach itself from the establishments located along it. North and south of the Beachfront Path, beachfront establishments do literally front along the beach itself. Several roads and paths connect the Beachfront Path with Boracay’s Main Road, a vehicular road which runs the length of the island. At the extreme northern end of White Beach, a footpath runs around the headland there and connects White Beach with Diniwid Beach.

Bulabog Beach, across the island from White Beach, is the second most popular tourist beach on the island and Boracay’s main windsurfing and kiteboarding area.

Boracay is divided for land use and conservation purposes into 400 hectares of preserved forestland and 628.96 hectares of agricultural land.[35][36][37][38][39][40]  (Source: Wikipedia)



(Source: Wikipedia)

Partly because of its wind and weather patterns, tourism in Boracay is at its peak during the amihan season (which starts in September or October and ends sometime in May or June). During amihan, the prevailing wind blows from the east. Boracay’s main tourism area, White Beach, is on the western side of the island and is sheltered from the wind. During the Amihan season, the water off White Beach is often glassy-smooth. On the eastern side of the island, hills on the northern and southern ends of the island channel the Amihan season wind from the east onshore, onto Bulabog Beach in the central part of the island’s eastern side. This makes the reef-protected waters off that beach relatively safe[52] and ideal for scuba divingwindsurfing, and kiteboarding / kitesurfing.

In June 2011, it was reported that Megaworld Corporation, a real estate development group led by Andrew Tan had earmarked PHP20 billion to develop tourism estates “featuring an integrated, master-planned layout and world-class resort offerings and amenities” in Boracay and Cavite. The planned Boracay project, Boracay Newcoast, involves four hotels with 1,500 rooms, a plaza, and an entertainment center.[53] 

Leisure activities available on or near Boracay include horseback riding, scuba divingdiving helmetsnorkelingwindsurfingkiteboarding, cliff diving, parasailing.

Boracay is the site of an 18-hole par 72 golf course designed by Graham Marsh.[54] In addition, as of 2010, Boracay has in excess of 350 beach resorts offering more than 2,000 rooms ranging in quality from five-star to budget accommodation.[55] In addition, Boracay offers a wide range of restaurants, bars, pubs, and nightclubs.

landmark natural rock formation, Boracay’s Rock, juts prominently directly in front of Willy’s Beach Resort. (Source: Wikipedia).


Fauna   (Source:  wikipedia)

At least three species of flying foxes has been recorded to inhabit Boracay namely the giant golden-crowned flying fox (Aceradon jubatus),the giant fruit bat (Pteropus vampyrus), and the small flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus). Their population is concentrated on the northern side of the island in Barangay Yapak where the hunting of bats was made illegal through a local ordinance.[47]

According to the Coastal Ecosystem Conservation and Adaptive Management (CECAM), a study led by the Japan International Cooperation Agency conducted from 2010 to 2015, noted a 70.5 percent decrease of Boracay’s coral cover from 1988 to 2011. The study attributed the worse drop in coral cover from 2008 to 2011 to the 38.4 percent increase of tourist arrivals combined with poorly monitored snorkeling activity in coral rich areas.[48][49]The Boracay Foundation Inc. (BFI) made efforts to remedy the situation by launching a “refurbishment” program for the corals. In 2017, the BFI claims the number of corals in Boracay increased from 15 to 20 percent since 2015 due to its project.[50]

According to the Department of Tourism of the Philippines, there are a recorded 1,725,483 visitors to Boracay in 2016. In 2015, there were 250 thousand people who visited the island. Assuming the average length of stay of tourists to Boracay is 3 days, there are 14,182 tourists in Boracay daily as of 2016 adding to the 33,109 official population of the island.[56] According to Malay municipal records, more than 2 million tourists visited the island in 2017.[51]  (Source: Wikipedia)


Source:  (the Wikipedia)

Boracay has been experiencing an increased coliform bacteria population since the 1990s which contributed to a 60 percent decline in tourist arrivals in 1997. Although a potable water supply system, a solid waste disposal system, as well as a sewage treatment plant which began operation in 2003,  were installed to remedy the insufficient sewage and septic conditions in the island, environmental concerns regarding coliform bacteria persisted due to noncompliance of some business establishments in the island.[30]

In 2004, only 51 percent of hotels and restaurants in Boracay, and 25 percents of all households were connected to the island’s central sewage system. In 2005, Boracay was declared a “special tourism zone”. In April 2006, Arroyo gave the PTA administrative control over Boracay, to be exercised in coordination with the provincial government. In 2009, Boracay Island Water Co. (BIWC), won a contract to improve the supply of potable water and install an efficient sewerage system.[30]

Boracay has experienced abnormally high algae growth since February 2015, due to sewage being dumped into the waters surrounding the islands.[30] In early 2018, 50 to 60 percent of all establishments in Boracay were compliant to the Clean Water Act of 2004 according to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources.[51] 



2018 Closure  (Source: Wikipedia)

Due to worsening environmental conditions in Boracay, President Rodrigo Duterte in February 2018 said he plans to close the resort island which he described as a “cesspool”. He has instructed Environment and Natural Resources Secretary Roy Cimatu to resolve the issue.[32] In a cabinet meeting, President Duterte ordered the full closure of the island, for six months effective April 26, 2018, to rehabilitate and resolve the environmental issues surrounding Boracay.[33]  (Source:  Wikipedia) 



Earthniversity would like to thank the Radio-TV Malacanang for their video about “Boracay: One Month After Closure” which is reported by Assistant Secretary of PCOO, Ms. Margaux “Mocha” Uson.

We would like also to acknowledge our sources of information about Boracay Island, the Wikipedia.  Complete citations were made regarding the Facts and Figures about Boracay as taken from The Wikipedia.


Earthniversity does not own the video posted here as it is the property of RTVM, the Radio-TV Malacanang, a Philippine Government office under the Office of the President.  The Facts and Figures stated herein have been taken from the article about Boracay published at The Wikipedia.

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As of this writing, Boracay Island is still undergoing rehabilitation.  This activity includes cleaning up, removal of illegal structures, improvement of roads and waterways, as well as constructions of water treatment facilities and other requirements needed for a more sustainable island-resort tourism project.

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Photos of Boracay were provided by Henry Libo-on, Blogger at Touristang Pobre blog site.




Model of Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report of a BRT System Project


The Bus Rapid Transit System or BRT is designed to lessen traffic congestion in urban centers as well as decrease travel time from one point to the next therefore increasing productivity in all sectors of the society such as: social sector and economic sector among others.

In this post, Earthniversity shares the Final Report as of February 14, 2015 of the Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System Project which is also known as DART or  Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit.

“Dar es Salaam, is located on a natural harbour on the Eastern Indian Ocean coast of Africa, about 45 km (28 mi) south of the island of Zanzibar. The city is the main port of entry to Tanzania and the transportation hub of the country.  Dar es Salaam has a population of more than 4.3 million people living in its metropolitan area (Dar es Salaam Region). Spoken languages are English (official) and Swahili (national).


Aerial photo of Dar es Saalam City, Tanzania. Photo Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim

For details of this Report, please open this link stated hereunder.

Click to access Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_Project_ESIA_Phase_2_3_Report_-_04_2015.pdf


Earthniversity does not claim ownership of this Final Report on Tanzania’s Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System.  It is produced by Kyong Dong Engineering Co., Ltd. in association with Ambicon Engineering(T) Limited.


  3. Photo of Muhammad Mahdi Karim

Waste Management Practices of Canberra and Bermuda

One of the problems that bother any Local Government Unit or LGU in most of the Third World Countries is the lack of funds to finance their Solid Waste Management Programs and Projects.  This may include, the construction of a sanitary landfill, a waste treatment facility or any other means of waste management.  If this happened, most of these LGUs will, therefore, find it difficult to solve the increasing problem of environment-friendly waste disposal.

There are several funding agencies of foreign governments that can help finance the construction of Landfill and Incinerator. LGU officials, however, do not want to tie their LGUs up to the financiers because of high-interest rates, and the uncertain tenure of office of the local officials.

In the Philippines, LGU officials serve a term of three (3) years with two re-elections.

When both, the Landfill and the Incinerator would be very difficult to construct because of lack of funds and the cities are not willing to avail of loans from these international loan agencies like World Bank, and the uncertainty of getting re-elected, then these LGUs, specifically their Local Chief Executives as well as the Council Members would resort to the use of Controlled Dump Site or Open Dump Sites. Most probably, the latter will be the last resort for LGUs.

Basically, open dumpsites are unsanitary. No matter how Local Government Units insist that strict measures are done to protect the health of the community and its people living near these dumpsites, the truth remains that this practice is still unsanitary.

A few LGUs resorted to privatizing their Garbage Collection and Disposal. Some cities and towns succeeded in this approach while a few of them failed as the approach was loaded with corruption.  The mechanism is sometimes unknown to the Taxpayers and the voting public.  Thus, the public sometimes wonders why the garbage in their community is not collected regularly.  In a few cases, the Garbage Collectors demand money from Households so that they can regularly visit that community to collect their garbage.  A situation that frustrates the people and affects the cleanliness and sanitation of their community.

Let us have a glimpse of the Solid Waste Management Program of several cities nationwide.

Photo by Travelfoodguru

Photo by James Betia of Journeying James

Source: cdn.c.photoshelter


There are three (3) methods of waste management that are acceptable in many countries around the world. According to Jeni Braxton of Ezine, these are Landfill, Incineration, and Recycling.


Amongst the many waste management methods, using a landfill is probably the most practiced in more areas of the world than any other method. Landfills are often old and abandoned quarries and mining areas. Considered the most cost-effective way of waste disposal, about 75% of the cost of implementation is attributable to the collection and transportation of waste from residential and businesses to the landfills. The waste is layered in thin spreads and then compacted, with a layer of clean earth covering the waste material before more layers are added over time.


Incineration as a disposal method involves burning the trash. Sometimes this is simply referred to as thermal treatment, as a general category of high-temperature treatment of trash material. This method can be used to transform waste into heat, gas, steam, and ash. One of the advantages of incineration is that with this method, refuse volume can be reduced by half or more and it requires little usage of land. An incineration facility can be built in a small area to process huge amounts of waste. It definitely saves a lot of space compared with using a landfill only. This method is popular in countries like Japan where space is limited.


Recycling of waste material means taking the materials and transforming them into new products. This is a key concept in modern waste minimization philosophy. It’s about lessening the strain on the environment through minimizing the need to fully dispose of (eg. by incineration and causing air pollution) the waste generated and reducing the need to introduce new raw materials into the environment and then having to dispose of them later. In your everyday living, you may already be separating out paper products, aluminum soda cans or glass bottles into different waste containers so that these could be recycled. When bringing your own shopping bag to the supermarket instead of using a new plastic bag, that’s another way of recycling. (Source:


In the Philippines, I visited the City of Tagaytay, about two hours from Manila (I guess this included the traffic). Tagaytay is part of Cavite of the CALABARZON Provinces which are: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon.

Tagaytay City, Source:

Rotonda, Tagaytay City

Tagaytay Highlands, Source:

Cable Cars, Tagaytay Highlands. Source: (Thank you

TAGAYTAY CITY was then considered as a model in Solid Waste Management in the country. I personally toured their facility which included, the waste segregation site, the waste treatment site, the composting site, and the material recovery facility as well as their Mushroom Growing Project. Many cities followed the best practices of Tagaytay.
A few cities, however, ventured into constructing their own Landfill sites with loans acquired through the assistance of the national government. Other cities implemented the Tagaytay Model, while the others continued the Open Dump Sites and the Controlled Dump Sites.


Payatas Controlled Dump Site
Quality Disposal Facility for Quality Community
Managed and Operated by:
Office of the City Mayor
Payatas Operations Group
Quezon City, Philippines

Area – 9.70 Ha.
Waste Intake – 7,000 cum./day
Average Wt. – 1,402 TPD
Per Capita Generation – .550kg./P/D
Waste Density – 210 Kg./Cum.
Average Daily Truck Trips – 500 trips/day
Payatas Controlled Dump Facility

The conversion of the Payatas Dumpsite into a Controlled Dump Facility includes Engineering Works Program (EWP), Social Responsibility Program (SRP), and Operation and Management of the disposal facility with the following objectives:

* Compliance with R.A. 9003
* To extend the life of the disposal facility for another 2 1/2 years at the least
* To ensure the safety of the people living near the dumpsite and eliminate the risk of another trash slide
* To provide livelihood opportunities to Payatas residents.

General Plan

1.Conversion to Control Dump Facility
Slope Stability – Re profiling to attain the side slope of 1:2.5

Leachate Collection & Treatment
Storm Waste Drain (Drainage System)
Top Soil Covering
Methane Gas to Power Generation
Material Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant

2. Dump Site Operation
3. Social Engineering
4. Final Option

The Conversion Project is being implemented by IPM Environmental Services, Inc. (IPM-ESI) as the General Contractor and Sinclair Knight Merts as Consultant. The project covers the active and the inactive dumpsite having a combined land area of about 20 hectares.

Engineering Works Program

Slope Re-profiling – The 60-70 degrees side slopes of the dumpsite is re-profiled to 23-25 degrees or a slope ratio of about 1:2.5 and then covered with soil to ensure slope stability. Side cutting or berms are also constructed every 10 meters (slope-length) to minimize erosion and slope failure.

Leachate Collection and Re-circulation – The construction of peripheral leachate and then re-circulated or pumped onto the soil capped mounds to affect the growth of grass. Leachate re-circulation also helps to enhance decomposition and minimizes the discharge of leachate into the waterways.

Storm Water Drain – Construction of drainage canals along the periphery of the dumpsites serves as a drainage system in the area also acts as a catch basin for surface water runoff from the dumpsites.

Access Roads – The construction of all-weather access roads around the dumpsites facilitate: daily waste dumping, de-clogging operations, maintenance of slopes, and for an emergency.

Social Responsibility Program

The SR program includes:
1. Institute strengthening of existing workers’ organization;
2. Assistance in terms of access to basic services;
3. Establishment of Materials Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant (MRWVRP);
4. Market Development
5. Vocational Training; and
6. Enhancement of Emergency Response Term.

Payatas Gas to Power Generation

Methane gas is a natural by-product of decay and decomposition at dumpsites. Unless managed well, it poses real health and safety hazards to people living and working in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsites.

“Spontaneous combustion and fires are the common results of improper management of methane gas”.

The PCDF has gone one step further than merely managing methane gas: it has brought in the technical assistance of the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) for the possible utilization of methane gas at the dumpsites as a secondary power source for the facility as well as the community through the construction of a landfill/dumpsite gas (LFG/DG) collection system.

The Philippine Biosciences Company (PhilBLO), a private contractor engaged in biogas technology, supplied the 100-kilowatt generator set and installed the methane gas collection system at the facility, mainly using moisture traps as gas buffers. The IPM-ESI have installed streetlights from the dumpsite to the POG office. It is estimated that the current level of methane gas at the dumpsite could supply the power need of the facility over the next 10 years.

Tire Retrieval Project

Another component of the conversion project is the continuing search for an economically advantageous and environmentally friendly method for the disposal of used tires.

Towards this end, the Quezon City government tapped the services of Union Cement Corporation (UCC) for the processing of retrieved and/or collected used tires using Cement Kiln Co-processing technology.

The following are the photos showing the selected portions of the Payatas Controlled Dump Site Facility.

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Source: Getty Images…thank you.

Citation: Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of pictures


I had the opportunity to visit and saw the Solid Waste Management practices of Queanbeyan City in Australia when I attended a short course on Designing Sustainable Development under the Master in Urban Management program at the University of Canberra. I was sponsored by AusAID or the Australian Agency For International Development. Queanbeyan is located about 30 minutes away from Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory, and other neighboring New South Wales communities.

Queanbeyan and the neighboring communities had a complete facility for their waste management program. They have a huge building for waste segregation, another site for the recyclables like pressed soda cans, and bales of waste paper, among others. They have a huge composting site where compost materials from garbage, leaves, and trees are made into fertilizer and sold to local gardeners and others.

Queanbeyan City Council Building. I had my OJT with their City Planning & Development Office. Photo source:

There was also a material recovery facility or MRF somewhere between Canberra and Queanbeyan which is located near the landfill site where reusable materials like refrigerator, chandelier, cabinet or chairs among others can be purchased by people who found them still useful. I also saw a power generator where leachate from the landfill was converted into electricity. It can be used to light lamp posts and other small-government offices like Day Care Center or Library.


As far as wastewater treatment was concerned, Canberra has a water treatment plant or facility located in what was called the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. Canberra’s 90 million liters of wastewater daily are treated through several stages on several big ponds. On the last stage of the water treatment, a zero bacteria-clean water is produced. The guide even told us that the water is potable. This clean water was emptied into the Molonglo River. Clean water was therefore used by farmers from Canberra up to the southern reaches of the river, let us say, Adelaide. Inhabitants of the river like platypus are fed with clean water that sustains biodiversity in the river and the surrounding areas.

I visited this facility in 2000. That was a long time ago, but for sure, this facility serves its purpose until today. I posted a video of that facility here for your reference.

The City of Canberra. Source:

The video hereunder shows the Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. This is uploaded by ACTEW – Australian Capital Territory Electricity & Water Corporation.

Source: youtube, uploaded by ACTEW Water, Canberra, Australia, dated October 21, 2014.


Turning Trash Into Electricity is what this video is all about. Watch how garbage or trash is converted into electricity and appreciate how the City of Alexandria upholds the ideals of protecting and conserving the environment.

Source: youtube, uploaded by Planet Forward –


Now, let’s talk about Bermuda. Last September, I visited Bermuda and my interest in the use of incinerator in solid waste management was once again awakened because of my curiosity at the huge number of tourists and residents living in Bermuda and the garbage or waste that they generate.

Bermuda has a small land area left that using it for landfill may not be a good idea, much more sustainable with the growing tonnage of garbage generated every month. I also learned that Bermuda has no choice but to go for Incinerator.

The photo shows the neatly sealed black bags containing garbage from a local store at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda. Photos below show the world-famous Horseshoe Bay Beach and its pink sand. During high season, millions of tourists visit Bermuda. On a regular basis, about 600,000 tourists visit the island each year.

The Royal Naval Dockyard viewed from Norwegian Cruise Line – Breakaway. The Dockyard is the cruise ships’ doorway to Bermuda.
(Photos by Henry Libo-on)

In 1987, the Government of Bermuda engaged the company the Von Roll Ltd., of Switzerland to study and design a waste treatment facility for the island which included the design and construction of the incinerator. Bermuda constructed the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility at the cost of $70 Million.   It has been in operation beginning October 27, 1994.

For me, this on-going program of the Bermudian Government is one of the Best Practices as far as the use of the Incinerator is concerned.  Earthniversity is, therefore, sharing this story with our readers and followers worldwide. More specifically those who are government officials, urban and development planners, environmentalists and stakeholders in the Philippines and other parts of the world who can learn from the Bermudian Experience.

I have written hereunder the link regarding the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility. Please click the link provided here for the complete facts and figures about the facility.

Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, Bermuda

There is also a video of the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility that I posted here. The video is produced by Wayne Hackman and he was happy to share this with you. You will learn from this video that – at Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, NOTHING IS WASTED.

Source: youtube, uploaded by Wayne Hackman on February 14, 2014.
Thanks, Wayne Hackman for your approval to use this video.


1. I know that there are pros and cons as far as Incinerator is concerned but as an observer, I always respect the decision of the Local Government Unit (LGU) if they chose to use the Incinerator as a means of waste management. My confidence level is high as far as the LGU’s ability to maintain a high standard in the protection of the environment – the LAW which is: the Land, the Air, the Water and let us add – the Atmosphere.

For LGUs in the Third World Countries:

2. When LGUs cannot afford the cost of a Landfill or the operation of a Sanitary Controlled Dump Site, then it resorts to the use of Open Dump Site. In this case, the LGU must strengthen its campaign and implementation of the 4 Rs which are: Re-use, Reduce, Recycle and Rot or composting thus, minimizing the garbage that goes to the Garbage Dump Site.

3. The LGUs must encourage all villages to recycle from the source – meaning, from the household levels, offices, or business establishments levels. There must be separate bags or containers for recyclables like bottles, soda cans, plastic, and paper, among others. All households must be encouraged to have a compost pit for their kitchen waste. This compost pit can produce fertilizer to be used in the HH – household – gardens. Segregation at source must be strictly implemented in offices, both public and private institutions. Hospital waste must be separated and must be disposed of properly using a healthy and environment-friendly protocol.

4. Villages or Barangays must have their own MRF or Material Recovery Facility which will be the depository of reusable materials like refrigerators, cabinets, bottles, and others.

The LGU must also construct a Material Recovery Facility or MRF for the LGU where villages or “Barangay” without MRF can drop their reusable and recyclable materials. The MRF may have a display center for reusable but cheap materials that people could buy like cabinets, sofa, chairs, beds, tables, lampshades, and many others.

I saw this kind of MRF being practiced at Queanbeyan City in Australia. In the U.S. reusable materials like beds, tables, even television which HH does not need anymore, are placed on the side of the road to be picked up by the Waste Management trucks on a scheduled date. However, before the WM trucks could pick these things up, some residents who find these things still useful would pick them first, maybe do a little repair and use them.

5. There must be a waste segregation facility in the LGU. All waste that is not recyclables and is not for composting can be sent to the Controlled Dump Site.

6. Controlled Dump Site. The example is the Payatas Controlled Dump Site. (Previously presented).

7. The LGUs with support from significant stakeholders must conduct a continuous IEC – Information and Education Campaign on Solid Waste Management, i.e. 4 Rs, involving the broadcast, print, television, and social media.

8. The LGU must identify business organizations or companies dealing with Recycling of metals, bottles, construction waste, and many others and sign a memorandum of agreement to service the needs of the LGU. The LGU must assist these service providers in locating their recycling center and/or warehouse so they can ship these recyclables to the final recycling facility.

If I missed mentioning something that you might feel to be very important for your LGU or local situation, then feel free to add them.

I hope we, again, presented to you another informative post on how we can protect and conserve the environment through effective and efficient waste management.

If you know of any “Best Practice” which could be a helpful tip to protect and conserve our environment and the Earth, please share it with us. Thanks for following Earthniversity.


Earthniversity acknowledges its different sources of information, text, videos, and pictures. They were all properly cited on the pages where their materials were used.

Finally, you may also visit my blog site for more articles written about Bermuda with pictures. Here is the link:

Updated on November 25, 2019.

The Soil Speaks

The most vulnerable part of the planet earth is the Soil.  It is like a sponge, it absorbs anything and everything.  Do you think the Soil has no limits to what humans do to it?  Please listen to this conversation – the Soil Speaks.   Through the medium of “personification”  Edward Norton,  an American actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and activist, speaks on behalf of the Soil.  Please watch this video uploaded by ConservationDotOrg and Conservation International on youtube as part of CI’s global newest branding of the green movement initiatives which  supports.  Here it is:

The Soil Says:

“I am the Soil, I’m in the hills and in the valleys, the farms, the orchards

Without me, humans could not exist, but you treat me like dirt

Do you realize that I’m just a thin skin on this planet?

And that I’m actually alive, full of organisms that grow your food

But I’m broken, aching, overused, sick, because of you

You have withered me away

To less than half of what I used to be just over 100 years ago

Are you paying attention?

I am turning …… to dust

So, maybe you can treat me with a little more respect

I suppose you still want to eat, right?”


(If you have any correction on the foregoing message of the Soil, please let us know, thank you)

The Soil is “personified” by Edward Norton, famous American actor, director, producer, scriptwriter and activist.  Here’ s his photo.

Edward Norton (source: wikipedia)

Earthniversity would like to thank the Conservation International, ConservationDotOrg for uploading this video on youtube.  Earthniversity is just happy to share this video with our followers and website visitors throughout the world.


If The Rainforest Can Speak, What Will He Tells You?

If the rainforest can speak, do you know what he will tell you? Conservation International recently (October 5, 2014) uploaded a video on youtube through ConservationDotOrg and presented a very good discussion of what a rainforest will tell the human population. Here is Kevin Spacey, a famous actor, director, screenwriter and producer, narrating what the Rainforest would tell you. Here is the video.

The Rainforest says as narrated by Kevin Spacey:

“I am the rainforest, I watched them grow up here
They’ve left but they always come back
Yes, they always come back, for my trees, their wood,
my plants, their medicines, for my beauty, their escape
I’ve always been there for them
And I have been more than generous
Sometimes I gave it all to them
Now gone forever
But humans, they’re so smart, so smart
such big brains and opposable thumbs
They know how to make things, amazing things
Now, why would they need an old forest like me anymore?
Jungles, trees, well, they do breathe air and I make air
Have they thought about that?
Humans so smart, they’ll figure it out
Humans making air, that will be fun to watch.”


Narrator: Kevin Spacey

Earthniversity would like to thank Conservation International, ConservationDotOrg and youtube for making this video available to all.

This noble initiative of Conservation International is also in tune with the Earthniversity’s thrust which is Environment and Sustainable Development for planet Earth.


Thank you.