Model of Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report of a BRT System Project

Introduction

The Bus Rapid Transit System or BRT is designed to lessen traffic congestion in urban centers as well as decrease travel time from one point to the next therefore increasing productivity in all sectors of the society such as: social sector and economic sector among others.

In this post, Earthniversity shares the Final Report as of February 14, 2015 of the Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System Project which is also known as DART or  Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit.

“Dar es Salaam, is located on a natural harbour on the Eastern Indian Ocean coast of Africa, about 45 km (28 mi) south of the island of Zanzibar. The city is the main port of entry to Tanzania and the transportation hub of the country.  Dar es Salaam has a population of more than 4.3 million people living in its metropolitan area (Dar es Salaam Region). Spoken languages are English (official) and Swahili (national).

Source:

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Dar_es_Salaam.htm

Aerial photo of Dar es Saalam City, Tanzania. Photo Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim

For details of this Report, please open this link stated hereunder.

http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_Project_ESIA_Phase_2_3_Report_-_04_2015.pdf

Disclaimer:

Earthniversity does not claim ownership of this Final Report on Tanzania’s Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System.  It is produced by Kyong Dong Engineering Co., Ltd. in association with Ambicon Engineering(T) Limited.

References:

  1. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_Project_ESIA_Phase_2_3_Report_-_04_2015.pdf
  2. http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Dar_es_Salaam.htm
  3. Photo of Muhammad Mahdi Karim
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Waste Management Practices & The Bermuda Experience.

One of the problems that bother any Local Government Unit or LGU in most of the Third World Countries is the lack of funds to finance their Solid Waste Management Programs and Projects.  This may include, the construction of a sanitary landfill, a waste treatment facility or any other means of waste management.  If this happened, most of these LGUs will therefore find it difficult to solve their increasing problem on environment friendly waste disposal.

There are several funding agencies of foreign governments that can help finance the construction of Landfill and Incinerator. LGU officials, however, do not want to tie their LGUs up to the financiers because of high interest rates, and the uncertain tenure of office of the local officials.

In the Philippines, LGU officials serve a term of three (3) years with two re-elections.

When both, the Landfill and the Incinerator would be very difficult to construct because of lack of funds and the cities are not willing to avail of loans from these international loan agencies like World Bank, and the uncertainty of getting re-elected, then these LGUs, specifically their Local Chief Executives as well as the Council Members would resort to the use of Controlled Dump Site or Open Dump Sites. Most probably, the latter will be the last resort for LGUs.

Basically, open dump sites are unsanitary. No matter how Local Government Units insist that strict measures are done to protect the health of the community and its people living near these dump sites, the truth remains that this practice is still unsanitary.

Here are the undated photos of a few garbage dump sites located in different areas in the Philippines. The same image can also be seen in Third World Countries. As of this writing, not much has changed in the solid waste management program of several cities nationwide.


Photo by Travelfoodguru


Photo by James Betia of Journeying James


Source: cdn.c.photoshelter

WHAT ARE THE PROPER WAYS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT?

There are three (3) methods of waste management that are acceptable in many countries around the world. According to Jeni Braxton of Ezine Articles.com, these are: Landfill, Incineration and Recycling.

Landfill

Amongst the many waste management methods, using a landfill is probably the most practiced in more areas of the world than any other method. Landfills are often old and abandoned quarries and mining areas. Considered the most cost-effective way of waste disposal, about 75% of the cost of implementation is attributable to the collection and transportation of waste from residential and businesses to the landfills. The waste is layered in thin spreads and then compacted, with a layer of clean earth covering the waste material before more layers are added over time.

Incineration

Incineration as a disposal method involves burning the trash. Sometimes this is simply referred to as thermal treatment, as a general category of high temperature treatment of trash material. This method can be used to transform waste into heat, gas, steam and ash. One of the advantages of incineration is that with this method, refuse volume can be reduced by half or more and it requires little usage of land. An incineration facility can be built in a small area to process huge amounts of waste. It definitely saves a lot of space compared with using a landfill only. This method is popular in countries like Japan where space is limited.

Recycling

Recycling of waste material means taking the materials and transforming them into new products. This is a key concept in the modern waste minimization philosophy. It’s about lessening the strain on the environment through minimizing the need to fully dispose (eg. by incineration and causing air pollution) of the waste generated and reducing the need to introduce new raw materials into the environment and then having to dispose of them later. In your everyday living, you may already be separating out paper products, aluminum soda cans or glass bottles into different waste containers so that these could be recycled. When bring your own shopping bag to the supermarket instead of using a new plastic bag, that’s another way of recycling. (Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4065087)

THE PHILIPPINES EXPERIENCE

In the Philippines, I visited the City of Tagaytay, about two hours from Manila (I guess this included the traffic). Tagaytay is part of Cavite of the CALABARZON Provinces which are: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal and Quezon.


Tagaytay City, Source: bigattintourism.com


Rotonda, Tagaytay City
Source: http://www.panoramio.com


Tagaytay Highlands, Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/TagaytayCity.jpg/1280px-TagaytayCity.jpg


Cable Cars, Tagaytay Highlands. Source: http://indangbeauty.files.wordpress.com (Thank you indangbeauty.wordpress.com)


Taal Volcano as viewed from Tagaytay City. Source: https://images.search.yahoo.com

TAGAYTAY CITY was then considered as a model in Solid Waste Management in the country. I personally toured their facility which included, the waste segregation site, the waste treatment site, the composting site, and the material recovery facility as well as their Mushroom Growing Project. Many cities followed the best practices of Tagaytay.
(Note: to view the City Hall of Tagaytay City, please click this link – http://www.panoramio.com/photo/28762960

A few cities, however, ventured into constructing their own Landfill sites with loans acquired through the assistance of the national government. Other cities implemented the Tagaytay Model, while the others continued the Open Dump Sites and the Controlled Dump Sites.

THE PAYATAS CONTROLLED DUMP SITE EXPERIENCE, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
Source: http://tuklasinnatin.wordpress.com/2011/07/08/quezon-city-solid-waste-disposal-facility-payatas-controlled-dumpsite/

Payatas Controlled Dump Site
Quality Disposal Facility for Quality Community
Managed and Operated by:
Office of the City Mayor
Payatas Operations Group
Quezon City, Philippines

Area – 9.70 Ha.
Waste Intake – 7,000 cum./day
Average Wt. – 1,402 TPD
Per Capita Generation – .550kg./P/D
Waste Density – 210 Kg./Cum.
Average Daily Truck Trips – 500 trips/day
Payatas Controlled Dump Facility

The conversion of the Payatas Dumpsite into a Controlled Dump Facility includes Engineering Works Program (EWP), Social Responsibility Program (SRP), and Operation and Management of the disposal facility with following objectives:

* Compliance with R.A. 9003
* To extend the life of the disposal facility for another 2 1/2 years at the least
* To ensure safety of the people living near the dumpsite and eliminate the risk of another trash slide
* To provide livelihood opportunity to Payatas residents.

General Plan

1.Conversion to Control Dump Facility
Slope Stability – Re profiling to attain the side slope of 1:2.5

Leachate Collection & Treatment
Storm Waste Drain (Drainage System)
Top Soil Covering
Methane Gas to Power Generation
Material Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant

2. Dump Site Operation
3. Social Engineering
4. Final Option

The Conversion Project is being implemented by IPM Environmental Services, Inc. (IPM-ESI) as the General Contractor and Sinclair Knight Merts as Consultant. The project covers the active and the inactive dumpsite having a combine land area of about 20 hectares.

Engineering Works Program

Slope Re-profiling – The 60-70 degrees side slopes of the dumpsite is re-profiled to 23-25 degrees or a slope ratio of about 1:2.5 and then covered with soil to ensure slope stability. Side cutting or berms are also constructed every 10 meters (slope-length) to minimize erosion and slope failure.

Leachate Collection and Re-circulation – The construction of peripheral leachate and then re-circulated or pumped onto the soil capped mounds to effect the growth of grass. Leachate re-circulation also helps to enhance decomposition and minimizes the discharge of leachate into the waterways.

Storm Water Drain – Construction of drainage canals along the periphery of the dumpsites serves as drainage system in the area also acts as catch basin for surface water runoff from the dumpsites.

Access Roads – The construction of all-weather access roads around the dumpsites facilitate: daily waste dumping, de-clogging operations, maintenance of slopes, and for emergency.

Social Responsibility Program

The SR program includes:
1. Institute strengthening of existing workers’ organization;
2. Assistance in terms of access to basic services;
3. Establishment of Materials Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant (MRWVRP);
4. Market Development
5. Vocational Training; and
6. Enhancement of Emergency Response Term.

Payatas Gas to Power Generation

Methane gas is a natural by-product of decay and decomposition at dumpsites. Unless manage well, it poses real health and safety hazards to people living and working in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsites.

“Spontaneous combustion and fires are the common results of improper management of methane gas”.

The PCDF has gone one step further than merely managing methane gas: it has brought in the technological assistance of the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) for the possible utilization of methane gas at the dumpsites as a secondary power source for the facility as well as the community through the construction of a landfill/dumpsite gas (LFG/DG) collection system.

The Philippine Biosciences Company (PhilBLO), a private contractor engaged in biogas technology, supplied the 100 kilowatt generator set and installed the methane gas collection system at the facility, mainly using moisture traps as gas buffers. The IPM-ESI has installed streetlights from the dumpsite to the POG office. It is estimated that the current level of methane gas at the dumpsite could supply the power need of the facility over the next 10 years.

Tire Retrieval Project

Another component of the conversion project is the continuing search for an economically advantageous and environment friendly method for the disposal of used tires.

Towards this end, the Quezon City government tapped the services of Union Cement Corporation (UCC) for the processing of retrieved and/or collected used tires using Cement Kiln Co-processing technology.
Source: http://tuklasinnatin.wordpress.com/2011/07/08/quezon-city-solid-waste-disposal-facility-payatas-controlled-dumpsite/

The following are the photos showing the selected portions of the Payatas Controlled Dump Site Facility.

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Source: Getty Images…thank you.

Citation: Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of pictures

QUEANBEYAN CITY EXPERIENCE
AUSTRALIA

I had the opportunity to visit and saw the Solid Waste Management practices of Queanbeyan City in Australia when I attended a short course on Designing Sustainable Development under the Master in Urban Management program at the University of Canberra. I was sponsored by AusAID or Australian Agency For International Development. Quenbeyan is located about 30 minutes away from Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory and other neighboring New South Wales communities.

Queanbeyan and the neighboring communities had a complete facility for their waste management program. They have a huge building for waste segregation, another site for the recyclables like pressed soda cans, and bales of waste paper, among others. They have a huge composting site where compost materials from garbage, leaves and trees are made into fertilizer and sold to local gardeners, and others.


Queanbeyan City Council Building. I had my OJT with their City Planning & Development Office. Photo source: en.wikipedia.org

There was also a material recovery facility or MRF somewhere between Canberra and Queanbeyan which is located near the landfill site where reusable materials like refrigerator, chandelier, cabinet or chairs among others can be purchased by people who found them still useful. I also saw, a power generator where leachate from landfill was converted into electricity. It can be used to light lamp posts and other small government offices like Day Care Center or Library.

THE CANBERRA CITY EXPERIENCE

As far as waste water treatment was concerned, Canberra has a water treatment plant or facility located in what was called the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. Canberra’s 90 million liters of waste water daily is treated through several stages on several big ponds. On the last stage of the water treatment, a zero bacteria-clean water is produced. The guide even told us that the water is potable. This clean water was emptied into the Molonglo River. Clean water was therefore used by farmers from Canberra up to the southern reaches of the river, let us say, Adelaide. Inhabitants of the river like platypus are fed with clean water that sustains biodiversity in the river and the surrounding areas.

I visited this facility in 2000. That was long time ago, but for sure, this facility serves its purpose until today. I posted a video of that facility here for your reference.


The City of Canberra. Source: wikimedia.org

The video hereunder shows the Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. This is uploaded by ACTEW – Australian Capital Territory Electricity & Water Corporation.

Source: youtube, uploaded by ACTEW Water, Canberra, Australia, dated October 21, 2014.

Photo above shows, this writer, standing 3rd from left at the Lookout, overlooking the City of Canberra, Australia after our educational field trip to the Lower Molonglo Waste Treatment Plant (ACTEW).  With him are scholars from World Bank coming from Bali and Jakarta, Indonesia and India who were students of Master in Urban Management, University of Canberra.  Also with us was Professor Wellman.   The writer was sponsored by AusAID, the Australian Agency For International Development, 2000.

CITY OF ALEXANDRIA EXPERIENCE, VIRGINIA, USA

Turning Trash Into Electricity is what this video is all about. Watch how garbage or trash is converted into electricity and appreciate how the City of Alexandria upholds the ideals of protecting and conserving the environment.


Source: youtube, uploaded by Planet Forward
bloomberg.com/sustainability – http://youtu.be/DYYtj5sBUyM

THE BERMUDA EXPERIENCE ON THE USE OF INCINERATOR

Now, let’s talk about Bermuda. Last September, I visited Bermuda and my interest about the use of incinerator in the solid waste management was once again awakened because of my curiosity at the huge number of tourists and residents living in Bermuda and the garbage or waste that they generate.

Bermuda has a small land area left that using it for landfill may not be a good idea, much more sustainable with the growing tonnage of garbage generated every month. I also learned that Bermuda has no choice but to go for Incinerator.

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Photo shows the neatly sealed black bags containing garbage from a local store at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda. Photos below show the world-famous Horseshoe Bay Beach and its pink sand. During high season, millions of tourists visit Bermuda. On the regular basis, about 600,000 tourists visit the island each year.
DSCF2480

DSCF2707
The Royal Naval Dockyard viewed from Norwegian Cruise Line – Breakaway. The Dockyard is the cruise ships’ door way to Bermuda.
(Photos by Henry Libo-on)

In 1987, the Government of Bermuda engaged the company the Von Roll Ltd., of Switzerland to study and design a waste treatment facility for the island which included the design and construction of the incinerator. Bermuda constructed the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility at the cost of $70 Million.   It has been in operation beginning October 27, 1994.

For me, this on-going program of the Bermudian Government is one of the Best Practices as far as the use of Incinerator is concerned.  Earthniversity is therefore, sharing this story to our readers and followers worldwide. More specifically those who are government officials, urban and development planners, environmentalists and stakeholders in the Philippines and other parts of the world who can learn from the Bermudian Experience.

I have written hereunder the link regarding the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility. Please click the link provided here for the complete facts and figures about the facility.
http://rossgo.com/Tynes%20Bay/Incinerator.html


Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, Bermuda
Source: http://rossgo.com

There is also a video of the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility that I posted here. The video is produced by Wayne Hackman and he was happy to share this with you. You will learn from this video that – at Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, NOTHING IS WASTED.


Source: youtube, uploaded by Wayne Hackman on February 14, 2014.
Thanks Wayne Hackman for your approval to use this video.

Comments:

1. I know that there are pros and cons as far as Incinerator is concerned but as an observer I always respect the decision of the Local Government Unit (LGU) if they chose to use the Incinerator as a means of waste management. My confidence level is high as far as the LGU’s ability to maintain a high standard in the protection of the environment – the LAW which are: the Land, the Air, the Water and let us add – the Atmosphere.

For LGUs in the Third World Countries:

2. When LGUs cannot afford the cost of a Landfill or the operation of a Sanitary Controlled Dump Site, then it resort to the use of Open Dump Site. In this case, the LGU must strengthen its campaign and implementation of the 4 Rs which are: Re-use, Reduce, Recycle and Rot or composting thus, minimizing the garbage that goes to the Garbage Dump Site.

3. The LGUs must encourage all villages to recycle from the source – meaning, from the household levels, offices, or business establishments levels. There must be separate bags or containers for recyclables like bottles, soda cans, plastic and paper, among others. All households must be encouraged to have a compost pit for their kitchen waste. This compost pit can produce fertilizer to be used in the HH – household – gardens. Segregation at source must be strictly implemented in offices, both public and private institutions. Hospital waste must be separated and must be disposed properly using a healthy and environment friendly protocol.

4. Villages or Barangays must have their own MRF or Material Recovery Facility which will be the depository of reusable materials like refrigerator, cabinets, bottles, and others.

The LGU must also construct a Material Recovery Facility or MRF for the LGU where villages or “Barangay” without MRF can drop their reusable and recyclable materials. The MRF may have a display center for reusable but cheap materials which people could buy like cabinets, sofa, chairs, beds, tables, lamp shades, and many others.

I saw this kind of MRF being practiced at Queanbeyan City in Australia. In the U.S. reusable materials like beds, tables, even television which HH does not need anymore, are placed on the side of the road to be picked up by the Waste Management trucks on a scheduled date. However, before the WM trucks could pick these things up, some residents who find these things still useful would pick them first, maybe do a little repair and use them.

5. There must be a waste segregation facility in the LGU. All waste that are not recyclables and are not for composting can be sent to the Controlled Dump Site.

6. Controlled Dump Site. Example is Payatas Controlled Dump Site. (Previously presented).

7. The LGUs with support from significant stakeholders must conduct a continuous IEC – Information and Education Campaign on Solid Waste Management, i.e. 4 Rs, involving the broadcast, print, television and the social media.

8. The LGU must identify business organizations or companies dealing with Recycling of metals, bottles, construction waste, and many others and sign a memorandum of agreement to service the needs of the LGU. The LGU must assist these service providers in locating their recycling center and/or warehouse so they can ship these recyclables to the final recycling facility.

If I miss to mention something that you might feel to be very important for your LGU or local situation, then feel free to add them.

I hope we, again, presented to you another informative post on how we can protect and conserve the environment through the effective and efficient waste management.

If you know of any “Best Practice” which could be a helpful tip to protect and conserve our environment and the Earth, please share it with us. Thanks for following Earthniversity.

Acknowledgment:

Earthniversity acknowledges its different sources of information, text, videos and pictures. They were all properly cited on the pages where their materials were used.

Finally, you may also visit my blogsite for more articles written about Bermuda with pictures. Here is the link: http://www.touristangpobre.blogspot.com

The Soil Speaks

The most vulnerable part of the planet earth is the Soil.  It is like a sponge, it absorbs anything and everything.  Do you think the Soil has no limits to what humans do to it?  Please listen to this conversation – the Soil Speaks.   Through the medium of “personification”  Edward Norton,  an American actor, director, producer, screenwriter, and activist, speaks on behalf of the Soil.  Please watch this video uploaded by ConservationDotOrg and Conservation International on youtube as part of CI’s global newest branding of the green movement initiatives which earthniversity.com  supports.  Here it is:

The Soil Says:

“I am the Soil, I’m in the hills and in the valleys, the farms, the orchards

Without me, humans could not exist, but you treat me like dirt

Do you realize that I’m just a thin skin on this planet?

And that I’m actually alive, full of organisms that grow your food

But I’m broken, aching, overused, sick, because of you

You have withered me away

To less than half of what I used to be just over 100 years ago

Are you paying attention?

I am turning …… to dust

So, maybe you can treat me with a little more respect

I suppose you still want to eat, right?”

-end-

(If you have any correction on the foregoing message of the Soil, please let us know, thank you)

The Soil is “personified” by Edward Norton, famous American actor, director, producer, scriptwriter and activist.  Here’ s his photo.

Edward Norton (source: wikipedia)

Earthniversity would like to thank the Conservation International, ConservationDotOrg for uploading this video on youtube.  Earthniversity is just happy to share this video with our followers and website visitors throughout the world.

 

If The Rainforest Can Speak, What Will He Tells You?

If the rainforest can speak, do you know what he will tell you? Conservation International recently (October 5, 2014) uploaded a video on youtube through ConservationDotOrg and presented a very good discussion of what a rainforest will tell the human population. Here is Kevin Spacey, a famous actor, director, screenwriter and producer, narrating what the Rainforest would tell you. Here is the video.


The Rainforest says as narrated by Kevin Spacey:

“I am the rainforest, I watched them grow up here
They’ve left but they always come back
Yes, they always come back, for my trees, their wood,
my plants, their medicines, for my beauty, their escape
I’ve always been there for them
And I have been more than generous
Sometimes I gave it all to them
Now gone forever
But humans, they’re so smart, so smart
such big brains and opposable thumbs
They know how to make things, amazing things
Now, why would they need an old forest like me anymore?
Jungles, trees, well, they do breathe air and I make air
Have they thought about that?
Humans so smart, they’ll figure it out
Humans making air, that will be fun to watch.”

-end-

Narrator: Kevin Spacey

Earthniversity would like to thank Conservation International, ConservationDotOrg and youtube for making this video available to all.

This noble initiative of Conservation International is also in tune with the Earthniversity’s thrust which is Environment and Sustainable Development for planet Earth.

IF YOU WISH TO WATCH THE FIVE (5) OTHER VIDEOS, JUST SEARCH THE YOUTUBE VIDEO SCREEN AFTER THIS PRESENTATION AND CLICK THE VIDEO YOU WISH TO WATCH.

Thank you.

Earth Song by Michael Jackson With Lyrics


Source: Youtube. Originally written and composed by Michael Jackson in a hotel room in Austria under the title “What About Us”.

EARTH SONG
What about sunrise, what about rain,
What about all the things, that you said we were to gain,
What about killing fields, Is there a time,
What about all the things, that you said was yours and mine.

Did you ever stop to notice, all the blood we’ve shed before,
Did you ever stop to notice, this crying earth, this weeping shores.
a a aaaaaaaaah, ooooooooh, (2x)
What we’ve done to the world, look what we’ve done,
What about all the peace, that you pledge your only Son,
What about flowering fields, is there a time,
What about all the dreams, that you said was yours and mine,
Did you ever stop to notice, all the children dead from war,
Did you ever stop to notice, this crying earth this weeping shores,
a a aaaaaaahhh…..oooooooohhhh (2x)
I used to dream, I used to glance beyond the stars,
Now I don’t know where we are, Although I know we’ve drifted far,
a a aaaaaaaahhh……oooooooooohhh, (4x)
Hey, what about yesterday (what about us)
What about the seas (what about us)
The heavens are falling down (what about us)ĵ
I can’t even breathe (what about us)
What about apathy (what about us)
I needed you (what about us)
What about nature’s worth
ooooooooooooooooooooohhhhhh
It’s our planet’s womb (what about us)
What about animals (what about it)
We’ve turned kingdoms to dust (what about us)
What about elephants (what about us)
Did we lost their trust (what about us)
What about crying whales (what about us)
We’re ravaging the seas (what about us)
What about forest trails
(ooo,ooo)
Burnt despite our pleas (what about us)
What about the holy land (what about it)
Torn about by creed (what about us)
What about the common man (what about us)
Can’t we set him free (what about us)
What about the children dying (what about us)
Can’t you hear them cry (what about us)
Where did we go wrong
(ooo, ooo)
someone tell me why (what about us)
What about babies born (what about it)
What about the days (what about us)
What about their joy (what about us)
What about the man (what about us)
What about the crying man (what about us)
What about Abraham (what about us)
What about death again
(ooo,ooo)
Do we give a damn…
aaaaaaaaahh oooooohhhhh (4x)

Comment:
The main reason why we posted this song is to share the beautiful lyrics which Michael Jackson expertly and creatively crafted to convey the deepest meaning of what’s happening on our planet Earth. For me, the song expresses the grief — your grief, my grief and figuratively speaking, the grief of Mother Earth at the extent of destruction and devastation that man had caused on the planet Earth. The hope for Earth’s recovery and restoration reverberates at the ending of the song…yes, we give a damn…a message that, hopefully, will be heard by all of mankind and energize them to do something better for the protection and conservation of what Mother Earth has provided for her residents.

Acknowledgment:

Thank you Vevo for uploading this video on youtube.
“Earth Song” was written and composed by Michael Jackson. It is one of Jackson’s most popular songs appreciated by Environmentalists all over the world. Earhtniversity exerted efforts to check the original lyrics of the song. Please let us know if you have comments about this by using the comment portion of this post. Thank you.

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Photo by: Henry Libo-on at Horseshoe Bay Beach, Bermuda, UK.

suyac14
Photo by: Marmar Dagu-ob at Suyac Island Mangrove Tree Planting Project, Sagay City, Philippines.

earth hour 2014
Photo courtesy of Councilor Ann Marie Palermo, Bacolod City, Philippines.

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Photo by: Henry Libo-on at Mambukal, Negros Occidental, Philippines.

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Photo by: Henry Libo-on at El Nido, Palawan, Philippines. El Nido and its 40+ islands and islets are Environmentally Protected Areas. (Location of Bourne Legacy, the movie)

Current Issues on Urban Metabolism & Harvard University Graduate School of Design Lectures, Part 2 of 3.

Urban Metabolism has always fascinated me. I came to know about this in 2000 when I was attending a short course on Designing Sustainable Development under the Master in Urban Management Program in the University of Canberra in Australia. Since then, I got hooked by it because of its relevance to urban planning and design. Its idea of treating urban area or as I would like to use it – human settlement – like a human body that metabolizes, is really relevant in the development, planning and designing of cities and urban areas. But what is Urban Metabolism?

WHAT IS URBAN?
The word urban refers to or pertains to a city, or belonging to a city. (Wikipedia)

WHAT IS METABOLISM?

“Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, “change”) is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of living organisms. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.” (Wikipedia)

WHAT IS URBAN METABOLISM? The Wikipedia has a nice explanation on this:

“Urban metabolism is a model to facilitate the description and analysis of the flows of the materials and energy within cities, such as undertaken in a Material flow analysis of a city. It provides researchers with a metaphorical framework to study the interactions of natural and human systems in specific regions.[1] From the beginning, researchers have tweaked and altered the parameters of the urban metabolism model. C. Kennedy and fellow researchers have produced a clear definition in the 2007 paper ‘’The Changing Metabolism of Cities’’ claiming that urban metabolism is “the sum total of the technical and socio-economic process that occur in cities, resulting in growth, production of energy and elimination of waste.” [2] With the growing concern of climate change and atmospheric degradation, the use of the urban metabolism model has become a key element in determining and maintaining levels of sustainability and health in cities around the world. Urban metabolism provides a unified or holistic viewpoint to encompass all of the activities of a city in a single model.”

THE HARVARD UNIVERSITY GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN VIDEO ON URBAN METABOLISM

In my research about Urban Metabolism, I encountered this video on youtube about “Projective Views on Urban Metabolism” presented by the Harvard University Graduate School of Design. It caught my attention very greatly that I wish to share this to our readers. I do not claim to be an expert on this topic because I am also a “student”, a searcher just like the rest of us.

Earthniversity does not own this video but is thankful to Harvard University Graduate School of Design for uploading and sharing this on youtube, so that interested people around the planet could learn from this topic – Urban Metabolism. This video was published on youtube on February 14, 2014.

This is the description of the video according to HUGSD.
Published on Feb 14, 2014

“DDes Conference: Projective Views on Urban Metabolism (Part 2)In the last two decades, the concept of urban metabolism, aiming to grasp the continuous processes of energy, material and population exchange within and between cities and their extensive hinterlands, has been subject of both extensive empirical research and, increasingly, critical discussion within the social and natural sciences. However, these interdisciplinary challenges have not yet been met with a synthetic response from the design disciplines. The goals of this one-day conference are, through the lens of urban metabolism, to: generally reassess the planetary rescaling of contemporary urbanization processes; unpack the transformation of spatial forms and structures and subsequently, the emergence of new operative territories for design; explore the agency of design in confronting these challenges.”

This is Part 2 of the lecture series and the following are the speakers for this session – Territorial Transformation:

1. Lola Sheppard – Topic: Territorial Metabolisms: Far Flung Metabolisms. Lola is Partner Lateral Office and Associate Professor, University of Waterloo
2. Salvador Rueda – Topic: Urban Metabolism. Salvador is Urban Ecologist. He is Founder and Director of Urban and Ecology Agency of Barcelona. He specializes in Planning and Analysis of Complex Systems.
3. Jane Hutton and Kiel Moe – “Material and Energy Ecologies”. Jane and Kiel are Asst. Professors of Harvard University, Graduate School of Design. Jane is with Landscape Architecture Department while Kiel is with Architecture Department. Both co-Direct, Energy Environment and Design Research Lab.
4. Moderator – Pierre Belanger

Toastmasters: Daniel, Nickus and Pablo

Citations:
1. Harvard University Graduate School of Design for uploading this video on youtube for all the people of the world to watch.

Comment:

This post comes in 3 parts. This is Part 2, so the next part will be part 3 of 3. Please watch for it here at Earthniversity under the label “Classroom”. These are also available on youtube.