Coral Gardening Technique

In the past, I have been thinking of the best way to rehabilitate the coral reefs which had been damaged by passing ships or illegal fishing method like dynamite fishing.  When I saw this video,  which I posted here,  I concluded, that there is a future for the protection and conservation of  corals and coral reefs, specifically, in areas where their presence is threatened.

Please watch this video which is published by BBC Earth.

 

And here’s another video about Coral Gardening in Fiji Island. (Source: youtube and Rossco-j)

 

Pacific East Aquaculture, Corals by Dr. Mac, produced this video which I got from youtube. Please check this out.

Thank you,  BBC Earth, Rossco-j, Pacific East Aquaculture Corals by Dr. Mac and Youtube.

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Waste Management Styles of Cruise Ships

Earthniversity presents a snippet of the different styles of Waste Management done by cruise ships. Their compliance with environmental laws, remove the irritants between the cruise ships and the environmentalists.   Presented here are two videos featuring their styles of managing waste.  The first and the second video tells about the problems the cruise ship’s waste management practices can affect the ocean.  The third video will give you an idea that there is a better way to dispose of wastes and lowering the cruise ships’ environmental footprint.  The fourth and the last video presents the various ways of waste segregation and packaging for proper disposal when the ship reaches its port of call.

Source: You Tube by Tina Dreffin.

Source:  You Tube by Cooper LeComp

Source: youtube, uploaded by DW (English).

We just hope, that all other cruise ships around the world, strictly adhere to the proper management of waste and their sanitary disposal whether on land or the sea.  I think, we just got to believe and trust what they do.  In the final analysis, their name is at stake.  So, cruisers (the people who patronize cruise ships), be selective in your choice of cruise ship.  As you think of your next travel destination, consider the cruise line that has a good record in protecting our environment.

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A cruise ship docks at the Heritage Wharf of the Royal Naval Dockyard in the island of Bermuda. (Photo by Henry C. Libo-on at Bermuda Islands, U.K.)

Source: You Tube by MSCCruisesOfficial.

Acknowledgement:

Earthniversity acknowledges the sources of the foregoing videos from youtube and its uploader. Thank you.

Updated March 2, 2018.

Climate Resilience Toolkit: A Framework For Understanding And Addressing Climate Issues.

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Photo shows the coastal area of Horseshoe Beach, Bermuda.  Photo by Touristang Pobre.

Earthniversity would like to share the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit which is now available on-line.

According to its website, “The Climate Resilience Toolkit provides resources and a framework for understanding and addressing the climate issues that impact people and their communities.”

While this Toolkit is prepared for use of the different communities in the United States, this can also be a very helpful tool to enable the various communities and Local Government Units, specifically in the Third World Countries and other parts of the globe in their planning and implementation of programs and projects designed to mitigate the effects of the Changing Climate.

This Toolkit covers the 5 Major Headings:

1.  GET STARTED  – this is the Overview covering the five (5) steps:

The (5) steps with this acronym – I DIET.

Step 1 – Identify the Problem – Focus on climate stressors that threaten people, buildings, natural resources, or the economy in your area.

Step 2 – Determine Vulnerabilities – Identify specific populations, locations, and infrastructure that may be impacted by the climate problem you identified.

Step 3 – Investigate Options – Compile a list of potential solutions, drawing on the experiences of others who have addressed similar problems.

Step 4 – Evaluate Risks & Costs – Consider risks and values to analyze the costs and benefits of favored options. Select the best solution for your situation and make a plan.

Step 5 – Take Action – Implement your plan and monitor your progress. As necessary, adjust your plan to move toward your desired outcomes. Be prepared to iterate, if needed. (Iterate means – to say or do again and again and again. Similar to reiterate.  Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary.)

Major Heading number 2 to 5 are as follows:

2.  TAKING ACTION – presents the Case Studies of Resilience In Action.

3.  TOOLS – Examples are: Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service; Airborne LIDAR Data Processing and Analysis Tools; Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI); Beach-fx; Carbon Tracker; Climate At A Glance and 30 other tools.

Here, you need the services of an expert that maybe available outside your LGU (Local Government Unit) or Office or maybe a member of the staff who can undergo training with well-known and accredited trainers in the area.

4.  TOPICS – the acronym is CEFH and these are:  Coastal Flood Risk; Ecosystem Vulnerability; Food Resilience and Human Health.  From these suggested topics, you can start your discussion on what Issues you will tackle first and what strategies, targets, programs and projects, you are going to implement and who are the people that will be involved, among others.

5.  EXPERTISE – This covers Training Courses and Finding Experts.  Capability Building is the term used in most LGUs to mean, a training of  personnel who works for the mitigation of Climate Change.  An LGU may tie-up with Foreign Governments Assistance Window on Climate Change to avail of funding and training support.  You can check the websites of embassies of foreign government in your area and check the assistance window available for this purpose.  The Local Chief Executive may write a letter of intention to ask for assistance, as a start.  If the LGU can finance its own programs for Climate Change, the better.

For a detailed discussion and guide, please refer to the link stated hereunder.  Thank you.

http://toolkit.climate.gov/

Additional Information:

1.  In order to have a common frame of reference of the word “Mitigation”, we will use the description adopted by FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States.  According to FEMA, mitigation is described as “the effort to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters. Mitigation is taking action now—before the next disaster—to reduce human and financial consequences later (analyzing risk, reducing risk, insuring against risk).  Effective mitigation requires that we all understand local risks, address the hard choices and invest in long-term community well-being. Without mitigation actions, we jeopardize our safety, financial security and self-reliance. ”

Source: U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit at this link:

http://toolkit.climate.gov/

2.  Also, as an additional input on the evidence of climate change, we will use the nine (9) evidence of Climate Change as pointed out by NASA.  These are:

1.  Sea Level Rise – Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century.4

Source: U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit at this link –   http://toolkit.climate.gov/

2.  Global Temperature Rise – All three major global surface temperature reconstructions show that Earth has warmed since 1880.5 Most of this warming has occurred since the 1970s, with the 20 warmest years having occurred since 1981 and with all 10 of the warmest years occurring in the past 12 years.6 Even though the 2000s witnessed a solar output decline resulting in an unusually deep solar minimum in 2007-2009, surface temperatures continue to increase.7

3.  Warming Oceans – The oceans have absorbed much of this increased heat, with the top 700 meters (about 2,300 feet) of ocean showing warming of 0.302 degrees Fahrenheit since 1969.8

4.  Shrinking Ice Sheets – The Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have decreased in mass. Data from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment show Greenland lost 150 to 250 cubic kilometers (36 to 60 cubic miles) of ice per year between 2002 and 2006, while Antarctica lost about 152 cubic kilometers (36 cubic miles) of ice between 2002 and 2005.

5.  Declining Arctic Sea Ice – Both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice has declined rapidly over the last several decades.9

6.  Glacial Retreat – Glaciers are retreating almost everywhere around the world — including in the Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska and Africa.10

7.  Extreme Events – The number of record high temperature events in the United States has been increasing, while the number of record low temperature events has been decreasing, since 1950. The U.S. has also witnessed increasing numbers of intense rainfall events.11

8.  Ocean Acidification – Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent.12,13 This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year.14,15

9.  Decreased Snow Cover – Satellite observations reveal that the amount of spring snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased over the past five decades and that the snow is melting earlier.16

You can also check these current issues in this link:

http://toolkit.climate.gov/topics/coastal-flood-risk

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Photo shows the afternoon clouds that shelter the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda.  Photo by Touristang Pobre

To learn more about the impacts of climate change and variability in COASTAL AREAS, visit the subtopic pages:

The foregoing list can also help planners and implementing agencies in  the formulation of programs and projects aimed at mitigating the effects of the changing climate.

In closing, Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of information such as:

1. The White House Facebook Page and the U.S. Climate Resilience Toolkit, through this link:

http://toolkit.climate.gov/

2. NASA through this link:

http://www.climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

Photos by Henry Libo-on

Traveling to Bermuda Island?  Please visit this link

http://www.touristangpobre.blogspot.com

Chile’s HidroAysen Project, aka, Baker-Pascua Dam Project

The environmentalist groups  led by Patagonia Defense Council or PDC  Coalition  which includes International Rivers, the Natural Resources Defense Council and local citizens and community groups  had successfully blocked the construction of HidroAysen Project in Chile.  This development came about four months ago in June 2014.  Earthniversity considered this event, happening in that far-flung country in South America, as worth sharing  to our readers and followers.  We hope we can learn from the PDC’s experience.

According to Andrea Germanos, staff writer of Common Dreams,  the “HidroAysén project in the seismically active area would have included five dams on two rivers in Patagonia—the Baker and Pascua—and, according to International Rivers, would have resulted in the flooding of “nearly 15,000 acres of globally rare forest ecosystems and some of the most productive agricultural land in the area,” impacting wildlife and forcing the displacement of people.”

Germanos further stated that “the nation’s top administrative authority, the Council of Ministers, unanimously overturned the environmental permits issued in 2011 for the dams.”  Germanos also noted that Environment Minister Paul Badenier was quoted by the Wall Street Journal. Badenier said that  “A decision was taken to accept the community appeals and void the Environmental Qualification Resolution that approved HidroAysén; so the project is declared rejected by this administrative act.”

For a full account of the story written by Andrea Germanos of Common Dreams, please go to this link:

http://www.commondreams.org/news/2014/06/13/chile-scraps-dam-project-greatest-triumph-nations-environmental-movement

Campaigners at one of the rivers that would have been affected by the HidroAysen project. Middle banner reads: Patagonia without dams. (Photo Source – Massimo Lupo/cc/flickr as cited by Andrea Germanos, Staff Writer of Common Dreams.   Hereunder is the link:

http://www.commondreams.org/news/2014/06/13/chile-scraps-dam-project-greatest-triumph-nations-environmental-movement

In a related story, a team composed of Ham Kim, Ravi Manghani and Lauren Pappone of  the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University conducted a study on the Baker-Pascua Project, Patagaonia, Chile.  Here is the Abstract of that study.   (Source:  htthttps://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/aquapedia/Baker-Pascua+Project%2C+Patagonia%2C+Chile)

TITLE:   BAKER-PASCUA PROJECT, PATAGONIA, CHILE

By:  Han Kim, Ravi Manghani and Lauren Pappone

Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University  (November 2009)

ABSTRACT:

The key issues in the water dispute are:

1.  The effects of the proposed hydropower project on communities proximal to and dependent on the Baker and Pascua Rivers and potential impacts on both river ecology and the surrounding area, including forest land through which new power lines would run.

2.  The Baker-Pascua Project is situated in Patagonia,Chile. The companies involved, the Chilean government, and some citizens see the rivers of southern Patagonia as a source of much-needed electricity (C).

3.  However, environmental groups, many local residents, and other citizens see the rivers as having an intrinsic value as wild rivers (V), as supporting diverse ecosystems (E), and as a source of food and tourism income for local communities.

4.  Stakeholders debate on the importance of the effects resulting from the change in the distribution of the rivers’ flows (Q) caused by this project. This conflict is driven primarily by economic considerations (C), because the project is motivated by Chile’s need to support its growing industries and economic development, and the involved companies’ desire for a profitable energy venture.

5.  We propose that a potential solution lies in government (G), which could use economic mechanisms(C) to incentivize other more sustainable options for generating electricity. However, such an approach has been difficult to implement due to the limitations of the current institutional structures.

Comment:

For a thorough discussion on this study by Fletcher University team, please click the link below.

https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/aquapedia/Baker-Pascua+Project%2C+Patagonia%2C+Chile

This map shows the location of Baker River and Pascua River.  (Source: Goggle Earth as cited by https://wikis.uit.tufts.edu/confluence/display/aquapedia/Baker-Pascua+Project%2C+Patagonia%2C+Chile)

Source:  Google Earth

Source: geographicguide.com

Conclusion:

The Patagonia Defense Council of Chile, exemplifies how a non-governmental organization who existed in a social setting where powerful groups of individuals and entities assert themselves to implement projects that they thought could bring unprecedented economic growth to the locality in particular and the country in general.

However, when the Environmental Impact Assessments of the project is considered, many issues have to be addressed and must be given a clear treatment on how it should be handled in order to minimize the negative impacts of the project to the environment, the people and stakeholders, the Biodiversity, etcetera and so on and so forth.

For me, PDC’s work on the Baker and Pascua Rivers Dam Project, also known as HidroAysen Project is a Model and a Best Practice that every environmentalist group existing in communities with similar situations as Patagonia’s Baker and Pascua Rivers should learn from.

The existing status of rejecting the dam project is not yet final as HidroAysen Project Officials might appeal the decision to the Environment Court or the Higher Court of Chile.  This was the observation of Luis Andres Henao of Associated Press, dated June 11, 2014.

If you feel that the  Patagonia Experience can be of help to your own local experience and to your LGU’s Environment and Sustainable Development strategies, you may also visit the website of International Rivers where additional information on the HidroAysen Project can be found.

Here is the link:     http://www.internationalrivers.org/campaigns/patagonia-sin-represas

Finally, Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of information.  They are properly recognized in this write-up. Thank you.

 

Waste Management Practices of Canberra and Bermuda

One of the problems that bother any Local Government Unit or LGU in most of the Third World Countries is the lack of funds to finance their Solid Waste Management Programs and Projects.  This may include, the construction of a sanitary landfill, a waste treatment facility or any other means of waste management.  If this happened, most of these LGUs will, therefore, find it difficult to solve their increasing problem on environment-friendly waste disposal.

There are several funding agencies of foreign governments that can help finance the construction of Landfill and Incinerator. LGU officials, however, do not want to tie their LGUs up to the financiers because of high-interest rates, and the uncertain tenure of office of the local officials.

In the Philippines, LGU officials serve a term of three (3) years with two re-elections.

When both, the Landfill and the Incinerator would be very difficult to construct because of lack of funds and the cities are not willing to avail of loans from these international loan agencies like World Bank, and the uncertainty of getting re-elected, then these LGUs, specifically their Local Chief Executives as well as the Council Members would resort to the use of Controlled Dump Site or Open Dump Sites. Most probably, the latter will be the last resort for LGUs.

Basically, open dump sites are unsanitary. No matter how Local Government Units insist that strict measures are done to protect the health of the community and its people living near these dump sites, the truth remains that this practice is still unsanitary.

Here are the un-dated photos of a few garbage dump sites located in different areas in the Philippines. The same image can also be seen in Third World Countries. As of this writing, not much has changed in the solid waste management program of several cities nationwide.


Photo by Travelfoodguru


Photo by James Betia of Journeying James


Source: cdn.c.photoshelter

WHAT ARE THE PROPER WAYS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT?

There are three (3) methods of waste management that are acceptable in many countries around the world. According to Jeni Braxton of Ezine Articles.com, these are Landfill, Incineration, and Recycling.

Landfill

Amongst the many waste management methods, using a landfill is probably the most practiced in more areas of the world than any other method. Landfills are often old and abandoned quarries and mining areas. Considered the most cost-effective way of waste disposal, about 75% of the cost of implementation is attributable to the collection and transportation of waste from residential and businesses to the landfills. The waste is layered in thin spreads and then compacted, with a layer of clean earth covering the waste material before more layers are added over time.

Incineration

Incineration as a disposal method involves burning the trash. Sometimes this is simply referred to as thermal treatment, as a general category of high-temperature treatment of trash material. This method can be used to transform waste into heat, gas, steam, and ash. One of the advantages of incineration is that with this method, refuse volume can be reduced by half or more and it requires little usage of land. An incineration facility can be built in a small area to process huge amounts of waste. It definitely saves a lot of space compared with using a landfill only. This method is popular in countries like Japan where space is limited.

Recycling

Recycling of waste material means taking the materials and transforming them into new products. This is a key concept in modern waste minimization philosophy. It’s about lessening the strain on the environment through minimizing the need to fully dispose of (eg. by incineration and causing air pollution) the waste generated and reducing the need to introduce new raw materials into the environment and then having to dispose of them later. In your everyday living, you may already be separating out paper products, aluminum soda cans or glass bottles into different waste containers so that these could be recycled. When bringing your own shopping bag to the supermarket instead of using a new plastic bag, that’s another way of recycling. (Source: http://EzineArticles.com/4065087)

THE PHILIPPINES EXPERIENCE

In the Philippines, I visited the City of Tagaytay, about two hours from Manila (I guess this included the traffic). Tagaytay is part of Cavite of the CALABARZON Provinces which are: Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon.


Tagaytay City, Source: bigattintourism.com


Rotonda, Tagaytay City
Source: http://www.panoramio.com


Tagaytay Highlands, Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/80/TagaytayCity.jpg/1280px-TagaytayCity.jpg


Cable Cars, Tagaytay Highlands. Source: http://indangbeauty.files.wordpress.com (Thank you indangbeauty.wordpress.com)


Taal Volcano as viewed from Tagaytay City. Source: https://images.search.yahoo.com

TAGAYTAY CITY was then considered as a model in Solid Waste Management in the country. I personally toured their facility which included, the waste segregation site, the waste treatment site, the composting site, and the material recovery facility as well as their Mushroom Growing Project. Many cities followed the best practices of Tagaytay.
(Note: to view the City Hall of Tagaytay City, please click this link – http://www.panoramio.com/photo/28762960

A few cities, however, ventured into constructing their own Landfill sites with loans acquired through the assistance of the national government. Other cities implemented the Tagaytay Model, while the others continued the Open Dump Sites and the Controlled Dump Sites.

THE PAYATAS CONTROLLED DUMP SITE EXPERIENCE, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
Source: http://tuklasinnatin.wordpress.com/2011/07/08/quezon-city-solid-waste-disposal-facility-payatas-controlled-dumpsite/

Payatas Controlled Dump Site
Quality Disposal Facility for Quality Community
Managed and Operated by:
Office of the City Mayor
Payatas Operations Group
Quezon City, Philippines

Area – 9.70 Ha.
Waste Intake – 7,000 cum./day
Average Wt. – 1,402 TPD
Per Capita Generation – .550kg./P/D
Waste Density – 210 Kg./Cum.
Average Daily Truck Trips – 500 trips/day
Payatas Controlled Dump Facility

The conversion of the Payatas Dumpsite into a Controlled Dump Facility includes Engineering Works Program (EWP), Social Responsibility Program (SRP), and Operation and Management of the disposal facility with following objectives:

* Compliance with R.A. 9003
* To extend the life of the disposal facility for another 2 1/2 years at the least
* To ensure the safety of the people living near the dumpsite and eliminate the risk of another trash slide
* To provide livelihood opportunity to Payatas residents.

General Plan

1.Conversion to Control Dump Facility
Slope Stability – Re profiling to attain the side slope of 1:2.5

Leachate Collection & Treatment
Storm Waste Drain (Drainage System)
Top Soil Covering
Methane Gas to Power Generation
Material Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant

2. Dump Site Operation
3. Social Engineering
4. Final Option

The Conversion Project is being implemented by IPM Environmental Services, Inc. (IPM-ESI) as the General Contractor and Sinclair Knight Merts as Consultant. The project covers the active and the inactive dumpsite having a combined land area of about 20 hectares.

Engineering Works Program

Slope Re-profiling – The 60-70 degrees side slopes of the dumpsite is re-profiled to 23-25 degrees or a slope ratio of about 1:2.5 and then covered with soil to ensure slope stability. Side cutting or berms are also constructed every 10 meters (slope-length) to minimize erosion and slope failure.

Leachate Collection and Re-circulation – The construction of peripheral leachate and then re-circulated or pumped onto the soil capped mounds to affect the growth of grass. Leachate re-circulation also helps to enhance decomposition and minimizes the discharge of leachate into the waterways.

Storm Water Drain – Construction of drainage canals along the periphery of the dumpsites serves as drainage system in the area also acts as a catch basin for surface water runoff from the dumpsites.

Access Roads – The construction of all-weather access roads around the dumpsites facilitate: daily waste dumping, de-clogging operations, maintenance of slopes, and for an emergency.

Social Responsibility Program

The SR program includes:
1. Institute strengthening of existing workers’ organization;
2. Assistance in terms of access to basic services;
3. Establishment of Materials Recovery and Waste Volume Reduction Plant (MRWVRP);
4. Market Development
5. Vocational Training; and
6. Enhancement of Emergency Response Term.

Payatas Gas to Power Generation

Methane gas is a natural by-product of decay and decomposition at dumpsites. Unless managed well, it poses real health and safety hazards to people living and working in the immediate vicinity of the dumpsites.

“Spontaneous combustion and fires are the common results of improper management of methane gas”.

The PCDF has gone one step further than merely managing methane gas: it has brought in the technical assistance of the Philippine National Oil Corporation (PNOC) for the possible utilization of methane gas at the dumpsites as a secondary power source for the facility as well as the community through the construction of a landfill/dumpsite gas (LFG/DG) collection system.

The Philippine Biosciences Company (PhilBLO), a private contractor engaged in biogas technology, supplied the 100-kilowatt generator set and installed the methane gas collection system at the facility, mainly using moisture traps as gas buffers. The IPM-ESI has installed streetlights from the dumpsite to the POG office. It is estimated that the current level of methane gas at the dumpsite could supply the power need of the facility over the next 10 years.

Tire Retrieval Project

Another component of the conversion project is the continuing search for an economically advantageous and environmentally friendly method for the disposal of used tires.

Towards this end, the Quezon City government tapped the services of Union Cement Corporation (UCC) for the processing of retrieved and/or collected used tires using Cement Kiln Co-processing technology.
Source: http://tuklasinnatin.wordpress.com/2011/07/08/quezon-city-solid-waste-disposal-facility-payatas-controlled-dumpsite/

The following are the photos showing the selected portions of the Payatas Controlled Dump Site Facility.

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Image result for images of Payatas Waste Management Site

Source: Getty Images…thank you.

Citation: Earthniversity would like to thank our sources of pictures

QUEANBEYAN CITY EXPERIENCE
AUSTRALIA

I had the opportunity to visit and saw the Solid Waste Management practices of Queanbeyan City in Australia when I attended a short course on Designing Sustainable Development under the Master in Urban Management program at the University of Canberra. I was sponsored by AusAID or Australian Agency For International Development. Quenbeyan is located about 30 minutes away from Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory, and other neighboring New South Wales communities.

Queanbeyan and the neighboring communities had a complete facility for their waste management program. They have a huge building for waste segregation, another site for the recyclables like pressed soda cans, and bales of waste paper, among others. They have a huge composting site where compost materials from garbage, leaves, and trees are made into fertilizer and sold to local gardeners and others.


Queanbeyan City Council Building. I had my OJT with their City Planning & Development Office. Photo source: en.wikipedia.org

There was also a material recovery facility or MRF somewhere between Canberra and Queanbeyan which is located near the landfill site where reusable materials like refrigerator, chandelier, cabinet or chairs among others can be purchased by people who found them still useful. I also saw a power generator where leachate from the landfill was converted into electricity. It can be used to light lamp posts and other small government offices like Day Care Center or Library.

THE CANBERRA CITY EXPERIENCE

As far as wastewater treatment was concerned, Canberra has a water treatment plant or facility located in what was called the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. Canberra’s 90 million liters of wastewater daily is treated through several stages on several big ponds. On the last stage of the water treatment, a zero bacteria-clean water is produced. The guide even told us that the water is potable. This clean water was emptied into the Molonglo River. Clean water was therefore used by farmers from Canberra up to the southern reaches of the river, let us say, Adelaide. Inhabitants of the river like platypus are fed with clean water that sustains biodiversity in the river and the surrounding areas.

I visited this facility in 2000. That was a long time ago, but for sure, this facility serves its purpose until today. I posted a video of that facility here for your reference.


The City of Canberra. Source: wikimedia.org

The video hereunder shows the Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre. This is uploaded by ACTEW – Australian Capital Territory Electricity & Water Corporation.

Source: youtube, uploaded by ACTEW Water, Canberra, Australia, dated October 21, 2014.

The photo above shows this writer, standing 3rd from left at the Lookout, overlooking the City of Canberra, Australia after our educational field trip to the Lower Molonglo Waste Treatment Plant (ACTEW).  With him are scholars from World Bank coming from Bali and Jakarta, Indonesia and India who were students of Master in Urban Management, University of Canberra.  Also with us was Professor Wellman.   The writer was sponsored by AusAID, the Australian Agency For International Development, 2000.

CITY OF ALEXANDRIA EXPERIENCE, VIRGINIA, USA

Turning Trash Into Electricity is what this video is all about. Watch how garbage or trash is converted into electricity and appreciate how the City of Alexandria upholds the ideals of protecting and conserving the environment.


Source: youtube, uploaded by Planet Forward
bloomberg.com/sustainability – http://youtu.be/DYYtj5sBUyM

THE BERMUDA EXPERIENCE ON THE USE OF INCINERATOR

Now, let’s talk about Bermuda. Last September, I visited Bermuda and my interest about the use of incinerator in the solid waste management was once again awakened because of my curiosity at the huge number of tourists and residents living in Bermuda and the garbage or waste that they generate.

Bermuda has a small land area left that using it for landfill may not be a good idea, much more sustainable with the growing tonnage of garbage generated every month. I also learned that Bermuda has no choice but to go for Incinerator.

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Photo shows the neatly sealed black bags containing garbage from a local store at the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda. Photos below show the world-famous Horseshoe Bay Beach and its pink sand. During high season, millions of tourists visit Bermuda. On the regular basis, about 600,000 tourists visit the island each year.
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The Royal Naval Dockyard viewed from Norwegian Cruise Line – Breakaway. The Dockyard is the cruise ships’ doorway to Bermuda.
(Photos by Henry Libo-on)

In 1987, the Government of Bermuda engaged the company the Von Roll Ltd., of Switzerland to study and design a waste treatment facility for the island which included the design and construction of the incinerator. Bermuda constructed the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility at the cost of $70 Million.   It has been in operation beginning October 27, 1994.

For me, this on-going program of the Bermudian Government is one of the Best Practices as far as the use of Incinerator is concerned.  Earthniversity is, therefore, sharing this story to our readers and followers worldwide. More specifically those who are government officials, urban and development planners, environmentalists and stakeholders in the Philippines and other parts of the world who can learn from the Bermudian Experience.

I have written hereunder the link regarding the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility. Please click the link provided here for the complete facts and figures about the facility.
http://rossgo.com/Tynes%20Bay/Incinerator.html


Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, Bermuda
Source: http://rossgo.com

There is also a video of the Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility that I posted here. The video is produced by Wayne Hackman and he was happy to share this with you. You will learn from this video that – at Tynes Bay Waste Treatment Facility, NOTHING IS WASTED.


Source: youtube, uploaded by Wayne Hackman on February 14, 2014.
Thanks, Wayne Hackman for your approval to use this video.

Comments:

1. I know that there are pros and cons as far as Incinerator is concerned but as an observer, I always respect the decision of the Local Government Unit (LGU) if they chose to use the Incinerator as a means of waste management. My confidence level is high as far as the LGU’s ability to maintain a high standard in the protection of the environment – the LAW which are: the Land, the Air, the Water and let us add – the Atmosphere.

For LGUs in the Third World Countries:

2. When LGUs cannot afford the cost of a Landfill or the operation of a Sanitary Controlled Dump Site, then it resorts to the use of Open Dump Site. In this case, the LGU must strengthen its campaign and implementation of the 4 Rs which are: Re-use, Reduce, Recycle and Rot or composting thus, minimizing the garbage that goes to the Garbage Dump Site.

3. The LGUs must encourage all villages to recycle from the source – meaning, from the household levels, offices, or business establishments levels. There must be separate bags or containers for recyclables like bottles, soda cans, plastic, and paper, among others. All households must be encouraged to have a compost pit for their kitchen waste. This compost pit can produce fertilizer to be used in the HH – household – gardens. Segregation at source must be strictly implemented in offices, both public and private institutions. Hospital waste must be separated and must be disposed of properly using a healthy and environment-friendly protocol.

4. Villages or Barangays must have their own MRF or Material Recovery Facility which will be the depository of reusable materials like refrigerator, cabinets, bottles, and others.

The LGU must also construct a Material Recovery Facility or MRF for the LGU where villages or “Barangay” without MRF can drop their reusable and recyclable materials. The MRF may have a display center for reusable but cheap materials which people could buy like cabinets, sofa, chairs, beds, tables, lampshades, and many others.

I saw this kind of MRF being practiced at Queanbeyan City in Australia. In the U.S. reusable materials like beds, tables, even television which HH does not need anymore, are placed on the side of the road to be picked up by the Waste Management trucks on a scheduled date. However, before the WM trucks could pick these things up, some residents who find these things still useful would pick them first, maybe do a little repair and use them.

5. There must be a waste segregation facility in the LGU. All waste that is not recyclables and is not for composting can be sent to the Controlled Dump Site.

6. Controlled Dump Site. The example is Payatas Controlled Dump Site. (Previously presented).

7. The LGUs with support from significant stakeholders must conduct a continuous IEC – Information and Education Campaign on Solid Waste Management, i.e. 4 Rs, involving the broadcast, print, television and the social media.

8. The LGU must identify business organizations or companies dealing with Recycling of metals, bottles, construction waste, and many others and sign a memorandum of agreement to service the needs of the LGU. The LGU must assist these service providers in locating their recycling center and/or warehouse so they can ship these recyclables to the final recycling facility.

If I miss to mention something that you might feel to be very important for your LGU or local situation, then feel free to add them.

I hope we, again, presented to you another informative post on how we can protect and conserve the environment through effective and efficient waste management.

If you know of any “Best Practice” which could be a helpful tip to protect and conserve our environment and the Earth, please share it with us. Thanks for following Earthniversity.

Acknowledgment:

Earthniversity acknowledges its different sources of information, text, videos, and pictures. They were all properly cited on the pages where their materials were used.

Finally, you may also visit my blog site for more articles written about Bermuda with pictures. Here is the link: http://www.touristangpobre.blogspot.com

Revisiting the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

On September 25, 2014, the United Nations  celebrate the World Maritime Day. It is a celebration that every country with territorial waters being on the limelight this 2014 should try to re-visit. One of the global instruments that governs the sea and the sea lanes is the Law of the Sea Treaty signed by majority member-states of the United Nations.

According to the Wikipedia and I quote, “The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The Law of the Sea Convention defines the rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world’s oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources. The Convention, concluded in 1982, replaced four 1958 treaties. UNCLOS came into force in 1994, a year after Guyana became the 60th nation to sign the treaty.[1] As of August 2013, 165 countries and the European Union have joined in the Convention. However, it is uncertain as to what extent the Convention codifies customary international law.”

Furthermore, the Wikipedia stated that: “While the Secretary General of the United Nations receives instruments of ratification and accession and the UN provides support for meetings of states party to the Convention, the UN has no direct operational role in the implementation of the Convention. There is, however, a role played by organizations such as the International Maritime Organization, the International Whaling Commission, and the International Seabed Authority (ISB). (The ISB was established by the UN Convention).”

On December 10, 1982, 157 member nations of the UN signed this international agreement which is popularly known as the Law of the Sea Treaty. This Law of the Sea Convention defines the “rights and responsibilities of nations with respect to their use of the world’s oceans, establishing guidelines for businesses, the environment, and the management of marine natural resources.” (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations)

The Wikipedia further stated the following information:

1. The issue of varying claims of territorial waters was raised in the UN in 1967 by Arvid Pardo, of Malta, and in 1973 the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea was convened in New York. In an attempt to reduce the possibility of groups of nation-states dominating the negotiations, the conference used a consensus process rather than majority vote. With more than 160 nations participating, the conference lasted until 1982. The resulting convention came into force on 16 November 1994, one year after the sixtieth state, Guyana, ratified the treaty.

2. The convention introduced a number of provisions. The most significant issues covered were setting limits, navigation, archipelagic status and transit regimes, exclusive economic zones (EEZs), continental shelf jurisdiction, deep seabed mining, the exploitation regime, protection of the marine environment, scientific research, and settlement of disputes.

3. The convention set the limit of various areas, measured from a carefully defined baseline. (Normally, a sea baseline follows the low-water line, but when the coastline is deeply indented, has fringing islands or is highly unstable, straight baselines may be used.) The areas are as follows:

3.1. Internal waters.  Covers all water and waterways on the landward side of the baseline. The coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Foreign vessels have no right of passage within internal waters.

3.2. Territorial waters.  Out to 12 nautical miles (22 kilometres; 14 miles) from the baseline, the coastal state is free to set laws, regulate use, and use any resource. Vessels were given the right of innocent passage through any territorial waters, with strategic straits allowing the passage of military craft as transit passage, in that naval vessels are allowed to maintain postures that would be illegal in territorial waters. “Innocent passage” is defined by the convention as passing through waters in an expeditious and continuous manner, which is not “prejudicial to the peace, good order or the security” of the coastal state. Fishing, polluting, weapons practice, and spying are not “innocent”, and submarines and other underwater vehicles are required to navigate on the surface and to show their flag. Nations can also temporarily suspend innocent passage in specific areas of their territorial seas, if doing so is essential for the protection of its security.

3.3. Archipelagic waters.  The convention set the definition of Archipelagic States in Part IV, which also defines how the state can draw its territorial borders. A baseline is drawn between the outermost points of the outermost islands, subject to these points being sufficiently close to one another. All waters inside this baseline are designated Archipelagic Waters. The state has full sovereignty over these waters (like internal waters), but foreign vessels have right of innocent passage through archipelagic waters (like territorial waters).

3.4. Contiguous zone.  Beyond the 12-nautical-mile (22 km) limit, there is a further 12 nautical miles (22 km) from the territorial sea baseline limit, the contiguous zone, in which a state can continue to enforce laws in four specific areas: customs, taxation, immigration and pollution, if the infringement started within the state’s territory or territorial waters, or if this infringement is about to occur within the state’s territory or territorial waters.[6] This makes the contiguous zone a hot pursuit area.

3.5. Exclusive economic zones (EEZs).  These extend from the edge of the territorial sea out to 200 nautical miles (370 kilometres; 230 miles) from the baseline. Within this area, the coastal nation has sole exploitation rights over all natural resources. In casual use, the term may include the territorial sea and even the continental shelf. The EEZs were introduced to halt the increasingly heated clashes over fishing rights, although oil was also becoming important. The success of an offshore oil platform in the Gulf of Mexico in 1947 was soon repeated elsewhere in the world, and by 1970 it was technically feasible to operate in waters 4000 metres deep. Foreign nations have the freedom of navigation and overflight, subject to the regulation of the coastal states. Foreign states may also lay submarine pipes and cables.

3.6. Continental shelf.  The continental shelf is defined as the natural prolongation of the land territory to the continental margin’s outer edge, or 200 nautical miles (370 km) from the coastal state’s baseline, whichever is greater. A state’s continental shelf may exceed 200 nautical miles (370 km) until the natural prolongation ends. However, it may never exceed 350 nautical miles (650 kilometres; 400 miles) from the baseline; or it may never exceed 100 nautical miles (190 kilometres; 120 miles) beyond the 2,500 meter isobath (the line connecting the depth of 2,500 meters). Coastal states have the right to harvest mineral and non-living material in the subsoil of its continental shelf, to the exclusion of others. Coastal states also have exclusive control over living resources “attached” to the continental shelf, but not to creatures living in the water column beyond the exclusive economic zone.

4. Aside from its provisions defining ocean boundaries, the convention establishes general obligations for safeguarding the marine environment and protecting freedom of scientific research on the high seas, and also creates an innovative legal regime for controlling mineral resource exploitation in deep seabed areas beyond national jurisdiction, through an International Seabed Authority and the Common heritage of mankind principle.[7]

Landlocked states are given a right of access to and from the sea, without taxation of traffic through transit states.[8

This writer is a native of the Philippine Islands and had been knowledgeable about the on-going conflict between China and the Philippines as both countries claim certain islets, shoal, reefs and other areas located in the West Philippines Sea. Other claimants of certain piece or pieces of islets, shoals, reefs and other areas there include Vietnam, Brunei, Malaysia, among others.

It is my prayer that these countries can resolve this conflict in a peaceful means by resorting to this international agreement which, I think, all of them were signatories.

Erratum: World Maritime Day is September 25, 2014 not August 25, 2014 as previously written.  Thank you.