Converting Ocean Waves For Power

After harvesting solar energy to produce power or electricity, another method of producing electricity is through Kinetic Wave Power or simply Wave Power which is converting ocean waves into electricity.

Source: Hashem Al-Ghaili. Thank you.

Converting ocean waves into electricity has been done many years ago. Wikipedia had an elaborate discussion on this topic.  The video is taken from the post of Hashem Al-Ghaili. Here is the discussion about Wave Power from Wikipedia.

History[edit]

The first known patent to use energy from ocean waves dates back to 1799, and was filed in Paris by Girard and his son.[13] An early application of wave power was a device constructed around 1910 by Bochaux-Praceique to light and power his house at Royan, near Bordeaux in France.[14] It appears that this was the first oscillating water-column type of wave-energy device.[15] From 1855 to 1973 there were already 340 patents filed in the UK alone.[13]

Modern scientific pursuit of wave energy was pioneered by Yoshio Masuda‘s experiments in the 1940s.[16] He has tested various concepts of wave-energy devices at sea, with several hundred units used to power navigation lights. Among these was the concept of extracting power from the angular motion at the joints of an articulated raft, which was proposed in the 1950s by Masuda.[17]

A renewed interest in wave energy was motivated by the oil crisis in 1973. A number of university researchers re-examined the potential to generate energy from ocean waves, among whom notably were Stephen Salter from the University of Edinburgh, Kjell Budal and Johannes Falnes from Norwegian Institute of Technology (now merged into Norwegian University of Science and Technology), Michael E. McCormick from U.S. Naval Academy, David Evans from Bristol University, Michael French from University of Lancaster, Nick Newman and C. C. Mei from MIT.

Stephen Salter’s 1974 invention became known as Salter’s duck or nodding duck, although it was officially referred to as the Edinburgh Duck. In small scale controlled tests, the Duck’s curved cam-like body can stop 90% of wave motion and can convert 90% of that to electricity giving 81% efficiency.[18]

In the 1980s, as the oil price went down, wave-energy funding was drastically reduced. Nevertheless, a few first-generation prototypes were tested at sea. More recently, following the issue of climate change, there is again a growing interest worldwide for renewable energy, including wave energy.[19]

The world’s first marine energy test facility was established in 2003 to kick start the development of a wave and tidal energy industry in the UK. Based in Orkney, Scotland, the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) has supported the deployment of more wave and tidal energy devices than at any other single site in the world. EMEC provides a variety of test sites in real sea conditions. It’s grid connected wave test site is situated at Billia Croo, on the western edge of the Orkney mainland, and is subject to the full force of the Atlantic Ocean with seas as high as 19 metres recorded at the site. Wave energy developers currently testing at the centre include Aquamarine Power, Pelamis Wave Power, ScottishPower Renewables andWello.[20] (Source: Wikipedia)

Modern technology[edit]

Wave power devices are generally categorized by the method used to capture the energy of the waves, by location and by the power take-off system. Locations are shoreline, nearshore and offshore. Types of power take-off include: hydraulic ram,elastomeric hose pump, pump-to-shore, hydroelectric turbine, air turbine,[21] and linear electrical generator. When evaluating wave energy as a technology type, it is important to distinguish between the four most common approaches: point absorber buoys, surface attenuators, oscillating water columns, and overtopping devices. (Source: Wikipedia)

According to Wikipedia, “Wave power is the transport of energy by wind waves, and the capture of that energy to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or the pumping of water (into reservoirs). A machine able to exploit wave power is generally known as a wave energy converter (WEC).

Wave power is distinct from the diurnal flux of tidal power and the steady gyre of ocean currents. Wave-power generation is not currently a widely employed commercial technology, although there have been attempts to use it since at least 1890.[1] In 2008, the first experimental wave farm was opened in Portugal, at the Aguçadoura Wave Park.[2]

Environmental Effects[edit]

Common environmental concerns associated with marine energy developments include:

  • The risk of marine mammals and fish being struck by tidal turbine blades;
  • The effects of EMF and underwater noise emitted from operating marine energy devices;
  • The physical presence of marine energy projects and their potential to alter the behavior of marine mammals, fish, and seabirds with attraction or avoidance;
  • The potential effect on nearfield and farfield marine environment and processes such as sediment transport and water quality.

The Tethys database provides access to scientific literature and general information on the potential environmental effects of wave energy.[91] (Source: Wikipedia)

Potential[edit]

The worldwide resource of wave energy has been estimated to be greater than 2 TW.[92] Locations with the most potential for wave power include the western seaboard of Europe, the northern coast of the UK, and the Pacific coastlines of North and South America, Southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. The north and south temperate zones have the best sites for capturing wave power. The prevailing westerlies in these zones blow strongest in winter. (Source: Wikipedia)

World wave energy resource map (Source: Wikipedia)

Challenges[edit]

There is a potential impact on the marine environment. Noise pollution, for example, could have negative impact if not monitored, although the noise and visible impact of each design vary greatly.[7] Other biophysical impacts (flora and fauna, sediment regimes and water column structure and flows) of scaling up the technology is being studied.[93] In terms of socio-economic challenges, wave farms can result in the displacement of commercial and recreational fishermen from productive fishing grounds, can change the pattern of beach sand nourishment, and may represent hazards to safe navigation.[94] Waves generate about 2,700 gigawatts of power. Of those 2,700 gigawatts, only about 500 gigawatts can be captured with the current technology.[23]  (Source: Wikipedia)

Furthermore, the Wikipedia enumerated the following countries as implementors of the WAVE FARM or implementors of Kinetic Wave Power Projects to generate electricity. These are:

Portugal[edit]

  • The Aguçadoura Wave Farm was the world’s first wave farm. It was located 5 km (3 mi) offshore near Póvoa de Varzim, north of Porto, Portugal. The farm was designed to use three Pelamis wave energy converters to convert the motion of theocean surface waves into electricity, totalling to 2.25 MW in total installed capacity. The farm first generated electricity in July 2008[95] and was officially opened on September 23, 2008, by the Portuguese Minister of Economy.[96][97] The wave farm was shut down two months after the official opening in November 2008 as a result of the financial collapse of Babcock & Brown due to the global economic crisis. The machines were off-site at this time due to technical problems, and although resolved have not returned to site and were subsequently scrapped in 2011 as the technology had moved on to the P2 variant as supplied to Eon and Scottish Power Renewables.[98] A second phase of the project planned to increase the installed capacity to 21 MW using a further 25 Pelamis machines[99] is in doubt following Babcock’s financial collapse.

United Kingdom[edit]

  • Funding for a 3 MW wave farm in Scotland was announced on February 20, 2007, by the Scottish Executive, at a cost of over 4 million pounds, as part of a £13 million funding package for marine power in Scotland. The first machine was launched in May 2010.[100]
  • A facility known as Wave hub has been constructed off the north coast of Cornwall, England, to facilitate wave energy development. The Wave hub will act as giant extension cable, allowing arrays of wave energy generating devices to be connected to the electricity grid. The Wave hub will initially allow 20 MW of capacity to be connected, with potential expansion to 40 MW. Four device manufacturers have so far expressed interest in connecting to the Wave hub.[101][102] The scientists have calculated that wave energy gathered at Wave Hub will be enough to power up to 7,500 households. The site has the potential to save greenhouse gas emissions of about 300,000 tons of carbon dioxide in the next 25 years.[103]

Australia[edit]

  • A CETO wave farm off the coast of Western Australia has been operating to prove commercial viability and, after preliminary environmental approval, underwent further development.[104][105] In early 2015 a $100 million, multi megawatt system was connected to the grid, with all the electricity being bought to power HMAS Stirling naval base. Two fully submerged buoys which are anchored to the seabed, transmit the energy from the ocean swell through hydraulic pressure onshore; to drive a generator for electricity, and also to produce fresh water. As of 2015 a third buoy is planned for installation.[106][107]
  • Ocean Power Technologies (OPT Australasia Pty Ltd) is developing a wave farm connected to the grid near Portland, Victoria through a 19 MW wave power station. The project has received an AU $66.46 million grant from the Federal Government of Australia.[108]
  • Oceanlinx will deploy a commercial scale demonstrator off the coast of South Australia at Port MacDonnell before the end of 2013. This device, the greenWAVE, has a rated electrical capacity of 1MW. This project has been supported by ARENA through the Emerging Renewables Program. The greenWAVE device is a bottom standing gravity structure, that does not require anchoring or seabed preparation and with no moving parts below the surface of the water.[56]

United States[edit]

  • Reedsport, Oregon – a commercial wave park on the west coast of the United States located 2.5 miles offshore near Reedsport, Oregon. The first phase of this project is for ten PB150 PowerBuoys, or 1.5 megawatts.[109][110] The Reedsport wave farm was scheduled for installation spring 2013.[111] In 2013, the project has ground to a halt because of legal and technical problems.[112]
  • Kaneohe Bay Oahu, Hawai – Navy’s Wave Energy Test Site (WETS) currently testing the Azura wave power device[113] (Source: Wikipedia)

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DISCLAIMER.  Earthniversity does not own the ideas discussed here.  Citation has been made as to the original source of these ideas on Wave Power.  The video is from a post by Hashem Al-Ghaili.  Thanks .

References:

  1. The Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. The topic is Wave Power.
  2. Video is from the post by Hashem Al-Ghaili.

 

 

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World Wildlife Day, March 3.

 

Source: https://images.search.yahoo.com

Every March 3rd is designated by the United Nations as the World Wildlife Day.  Today, there are so many challenges that face every nation and country as to how they should cope with the rising problems on the protection and conservation of the world’s wildlife, specifically those that are on the brink of extinction.

Let this day, therefore, be the rallying point to focus on the several activities, programs, and projects, strategies, and approaches to Protect and Conserve the World’s Wildlife.

 

 

 

 

Model of Environmental & Social Impact Assessment Report of a BRT System Project

Introduction

The Bus Rapid Transit System or BRT is designed to lessen traffic congestion in urban centers as well as decrease travel time from one point to the next therefore increasing productivity in all sectors of the society such as: social sector and economic sector among others.

In this post, Earthniversity shares the Final Report as of February 14, 2015 of the Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System Project which is also known as DART or  Dar es Salaam Rapid Transit.

“Dar es Salaam, is located on a natural harbour on the Eastern Indian Ocean coast of Africa, about 45 km (28 mi) south of the island of Zanzibar. The city is the main port of entry to Tanzania and the transportation hub of the country.  Dar es Salaam has a population of more than 4.3 million people living in its metropolitan area (Dar es Salaam Region). Spoken languages are English (official) and Swahili (national).

Source:

http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Dar_es_Salaam.htm

Aerial photo of Dar es Saalam City, Tanzania. Photo Credit: Muhammad Mahdi Karim

For details of this Report, please open this link stated hereunder.

http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_Project_ESIA_Phase_2_3_Report_-_04_2015.pdf

Disclaimer:

Earthniversity does not claim ownership of this Final Report on Tanzania’s Dar es Salaam Bus Rapid Transit System.  It is produced by Kyong Dong Engineering Co., Ltd. in association with Ambicon Engineering(T) Limited.

References:

  1. http://www.afdb.org/fileadmin/uploads/afdb/Documents/Environmental-and-Social-Assessments/Tanzania_-_Dar_es_Salaam_BRT_Project_ESIA_Phase_2_3_Report_-_04_2015.pdf
  2. http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/map/google_map_Dar_es_Salaam.htm
  3. Photo of Muhammad Mahdi Karim

Guiwanon: A Community Based Mangrove Project and Spring Park

DSCF3126 A local community in the village of Luyang  in the island of Siquijor in the Philippines, had organized the community of local fisherfolks and initiated a community project that promotes livelihood and eco-tourism.  They call this project the Guiwanon Spring Park Resort. DSCF3117 In the park are several springs that flows into the sea and the sea water joins the spring water in this area where thousands of mangrove seedlings grow. The springs that flow into the sea are found in the vicinity of the reception area, under the stilt houses, in areas where little sticks of mangroves grow and below the rickety bamboo and wooden bridge.  One traveler went down to check on the springs and reported that the water is very cool.   DSCF3118 The tall trees that abound the coastal area have been utilized by the local community in building several tree houses.  Other facilities like a conference room, several tree houses for accommodations of tourists, restrooms, a reception center, among others stand on stilts.   The facilities are connected by a rickety bamboo and wooden bridges.  Electricity is provided by a long line of cable that originates from the office along the road. DSCF3125Below the bridges, visitors can view the fingerlings or small fishes swimming in the cool and crystal clear water. DSCF3120 Guiwanon has been attracting visitors, specifically those interested in eco-tourism.  Guests can stay overnight in several tree houses available for rent.  The Pawekan and Kunalom House can be rented for P250.00.  Bolok-Bolok House is P350 and the Conference House is  P2,500.00.  The entrance fee of P10.00 will help the community organization in the maintenance of this project. DSCF3122 For those interested in staying overnight at Guiwanon Spring Park Resort, you are advised to bring your own food.  You can also arrange with your local guide or tour coordinator to take you to a few restaurants around or within the towns of Larena, Enrique Villanueva  and Siquijor and take you back to the park  after  dinner. DSCF3129 Guiwanon Spring Park Resort also propagates mangrove seedlings and sell these to organizations who support the conservation and protection of the coastal areas. DSCF3124 A social hall that can serve as seminar and training room as well as dining hall for a group that may be as big as 30 to 50.  This multi-purpose hall stands on stilts and facing the sea which gives one a quiet place to study or commune with nature. The breathtaking view of the sea and the lullaby of the cool breeze can put you into a  moment of reflection.  They are both the tangible and intangible things that can make this place special.  DSCF3128 If you are interested to help this community by renting their facilities, you may call them through this cellphone number – 0926-460-6010.

Earthniversity visited this site in the second week of May and lauds this kind of endeavor initiated and managed by the community.

Coral Gardening Technique

In the past, I have been thinking of the best way to rehabilitate the coral reefs which had been damaged by passing ships or illegal fishing method like dynamite fishing.  When I saw this video,  which I posted here,  I concluded, that there is a future for the protection and conservation of  corals and coral reefs, specifically, in areas where their presence is threatened.

Please watch this video which is published by BBC Earth.

 

And here’s another video about Coral Gardening in Fiji Island. (Source: youtube and Rossco-j)

 

Pacific East Aquaculture, Corals by Dr. Mac, produced this video which I got from youtube. Please check this out.

Thank you,  BBC Earth, Rossco-j, Pacific East Aquaculture Corals by Dr. Mac and Youtube.